Totalitarianism - An Era of Anxiety and Change Dictators Depression and the Democracies Rise of Totalitarianism o Extreme nationalism economic distress

Totalitarianism - An Era of Anxiety and Change Dictators...

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An Era of Anxiety and Change: Dictators, Depression and the DemocraciesRise of TotalitarianismoExtreme nationalism, economic distress, disillusion with democracyoLegacies of World War ITreaty of VersaillesAdolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini exploit these legaciesoCharismatic leadersAdolf Hitler- seen as being inspired by the gods, although he does not claim to be divine“Der Fuhrer” (translates to the leader)Joseph StalinBenito Mussolini“il Duce” (translates to the leader)Cult of personality
oChanneling popular resentmentsTreaty of VersaillesThe Depression, lack of jobs and economic welfareoSuppression of democratic institutions and rightsRegimented societies, police statesKGB (Soviet Union)NKVDGRUGestapo (Secret police force in Germany)Right to voteRight to free speechoMilitary aggression
Nazi’s are the epitome of this expansionItaly conquers Ethiopia (they had failed in the 1890s)oMass murderNazi Germany under Hitler5-6 million Jews and millions of other peopleSoviet Union under Stalin8-10 million peopleBetween 1933-1945, 13-15 million people die in Poland, Estonia, Ukrane, Lithuania, Belarus, parts of the USSR, and parts of GermanyNazism- GermanyoAnti-Semitic, Anti-CommunistoBelieved that Communists and Jews were connectedoDeveloped the first concentration camps in the 1930s before WWIDachauNot designed to killDesigned as work campsoOther camps are designed for killing as many people at once such as AuschwitzoHis is compelled by “Lebensraum” or living space, he wants to expand to the Eastbecause those people are “Subhumans” and he will starve them to death or kill them, and take their landFascism- ItalyCommunism- Soviet UnionConsolidating Communist Rule in RussiaCivil war, 1917-1922oCommunist party vs. Anti-Communist forcesoVery bloody, lots of deathsNew Economic Policy (NEP)oDesigned to rejuvenate the Russian economy so that it recovers some prosperityoLenin wants to use the policy until the economy is better, then stop and have a more communist style economyoHe dies before he can do thisRussia is at a major disadvantage because of WWIoLost a lot of territory in the West (in the treaty that Russia signed with Germany to get out of the war)oMuch of this territory was valuable in terms of economic worthLenin’s death and the struggle for poweroAmongst some of his major assistantsJoseph Stalin – ultimately the winner, has the ability to appoint people to various positions of powerRuthless and paranoidThinks everyone is a threat to himoDepending on how much of a threat you are, you will live or die
Only his allies live, and even those are often executed because Leon Trotsky – eventually forced into exile (by Stalin), goes to Mexico, but Stalin wants him to be killed and sends a couple of guys to Mexico to do this

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