college3 - PM - Content Lecture 3 PBS, WBS and OBS Scope 2:...

This preview shows page 1 out of 36 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Content Lecture 3 PBS, WBS and OBS Scope 2: WBS Phasing Decision making control and the control cycle. the control aspects time and costs Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt PBS/WBS/OBS PBS PBS Final Final Product Product Sub projects. with sub products Why doing it? WBS WBS Activities necessary to realize sub products Doing what? OBS OBS Capacity for all activities Who is doing it? Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt PBS Why a PBS? Handling complexity Improving overview, with the risk of losing just that Speeding up the project (sub projects executed in parallel) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt PBS principles Relations between the project as a whole and sub projects is weaker than the relations within the sub projects (see also last week’s lecture) Every sub project has its own (sub) product as a result Steering must be possible within the sub project logical, simple and accurate Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt PBS dilemmas How far must you go in creating sub project? There is not one truth Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt WBS The activities that must be performed to realize the final product of the (sub) project. The base for project control Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt WBS and scope: content and control The content activities are directly and necessarily related to producing the product The control activities are those activities that are not related to the product directly, but that need to be done in order to keep the project on track. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt RISK HUMAN RESOURCE QUALITY Content/ Scope COM. PROCUREMENT TIME COSTS Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt WBS and scope: three alternatives Scope encompasses only content activities, WBS only encompasses content activities (WBS defines scope but encompasses not all activities) Scope encompasses only content activities, WBS encompasses both content and control activities (WBS ≠ Scope, but WBS is informative about all activities) Scope encompasses both content and control activities, and so does the WBS (WBS defines scope, but scope is more vague. For example, when we are talking about ‘scope creep’ we do not mean control activities). Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt OBS Relating resources to the WBS Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Phasing Many different arrangements: Cooper (1) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Phasing Many Initiative different arrangements: Wijnen (2) Definition Design Preparation Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt realization Phasing Many Initial phase different arrangements: PMBOK(3) Intermediate phases Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Final phase Phasing The content activities are the ground for phasing Identify content activities Group (phasing) activities – Phases (higher level) and action plan (within phases) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Phasing Think first, act later Global first, detailed later Simultaneously (sub projects) and sequential (phases) Think forward, think backwards (trick) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Why phasing? Handling complexity Facilitating decision making achievable intermediate results/products/deliverables facilitating planning and control (reducing time span) motivating closing down projects at the right time Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Phasing A Phase is only finished when its intermediate product/deliverable is approved by the (delegated) principal. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Decision making Decision making is giving priority to alternatives. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Decision making 3 levels 1) The level of objectives (external environment) 2) The level of (intermediate) products/deliverables (principal) 3) The level of activities (Project leader / Project team) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Control the Control cycle replan Changing standard compare compare decision decision Report/plan Report/plan go Monitoring Monitoring performance performance Executing project phase Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Adjust/ Adjust/ steer steer Planning Planning is often the most difficult and unappreciated process in project management. Often, people do not want to take the time to plan well, but theory and practice show that good planning is crucial to good execution. The main purpose of project planning is to guide project execution, so project plans must be realistic and useful. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt 21 Control standard and margins A good plan is a good estimation, a bad plan is a bad estimation Even with good plans deviations are normal. Question is: are the deviations tolerable. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Control margins Replan standard Adjust Upper margin = standard + y% Lower margin = standard -x% Every margin is a function of uncertainty and uncertainty tolerance Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Control aspects SCOPE ? Discussion Time Costs Quality Communications Human Resources Risk Procurement Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Scope Control Procedure for scope control The procedure for scope control is meant to solicit and monitor scope changes; to stimulate beneficial changes and to prevent scope creep, and to keep track of changes. A procedure should describe things like: who does what when or with which frequency and how. Make sure that you take care of the relation with other parts of the project plan: who – Human Resource plan activities – WBS and from there in the Costs plan and Time plan When or frequency – Time plan Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Time control • Make Schedule • Monitor and control during execution • Evaluation Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Scheduling Based on WBS: identify activities Content activities But also Control activities Sequence activities Communicate Planning Network diagram Gantt chart Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Network diagram Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Gantt chart Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Further points of interest • • • • All relevant parties (also the executing) should be involved in negotiating the schedule. Communication of schedules at phase transitions Also schedule time for things that go without saying. ‘Time to complete’ is the leading principle, not ‘time spent’. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Don’t forget: A control system needs a plan (standards) but also a procedure for checking the performance, comparing it with the standards, and steering or replanning (who, when, how) Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Costs control Don’t forget to pay attention to incomes. When money is to be spent, it must be acquired first. Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Costs and revenues Cumulative revenues Time Cumulative costs Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Project and Object costs Cumulative Project costs Time Cumulative Object costs Time Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt Run time and Investment Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt planned costs and factual costs factual costs 400 300 200 100 0 100 75 50 25 0 -25 -50 -75 -100 Under or over estimation of budget in % Projectmanagement - C. Reezigt ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture