HIstory Final Study guide - Study Guide History 1310 Unit 1 1492 The Spanish completed their reconquista(reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the

HIstory Final Study guide - Study Guide History 1310 Unit 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide: History 1310 Unit 1 1492: The Spanish completed their “reconquista” (reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula from the muslim Moors. Additionally, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to finance Columbus’ voyage to the New World. Reached land in October 1492. Significant because Columbus was the first (with the exception of possibly the Vikings) to reach the Americas Albany Plan of Union: Drafted by Benjamin Franklin at the outbreak of the Seven Years War (1754) that envisioned the creation of a Grand Council composed of delegates from each colony with the power to levy taxes and deal w/ Indian relations and national defense. The Albany Plan was rejected by the colonies. Significant because it is an early attempt at unifying the colonies, though unification wouldn’t be reached for another 20 years. American Enlightenment (18th century): After the invention of the printing press, knowledge was more accessible to the common person, and this newly available knowledge to a rise in the general education was the enlightenment. Reason, rather than religious enthusiasm could govern human life. This notion led to the rise of Deism (God created the world and then left it to handle itself.) Characterized by rise in education and in scientific achievement. “Republic of letters” Significant because the average person was becoming smarter and laid the fundamentals for religious tolerance and secularism in science. Andros Overthrow (1689): Edmund Andros was an Englishman put in the Americas (Massachusetts) to lead the Dominion of New England. He eventually overstepped his boundaries by limited Massachusetts’ citizens of their rights to political participation and was seized and jailed by the Bostonian militia Significant because it is a relatively early attempt of the American colonists to impede upon the rule of Britain Atlantic Slavery: Slavery in the New World was different from the slavery of the past because it was becoming increasingly race-­‐based. The rise of slavery created an entire new market for Europe and the Americas, as it increased and encouraged trade with Africa, though it dismantled African societies Significant because slavery becomes a critical social tear for America as history progresses. Also revolutionized slavery as an idea and practice Est. of Jamestown (1607): Located in a poor environment (malarious swampland) and eventually the settlers had such a hard time in the colony they attempted to abandon it. 80% of population died. John Smith eventually got the colony under control when he basically instituted martial law “He who shall not work, shall not eat.” Significant because Jamestown was England’s first successful colony. Est. of Rhode Island (1636): Establishment occurred when Roger Williams was expelled from Massachusetts for arguing for religious freedom and toleration. R.I. became a haven for protestant dissenters and Jews. Significant because Rhode Island was one of the first places to institute religious freedom French and Indian War (1754-­‐1760): Also called the Seven Years War, was a war between the British and French (with the indians as allies) that broke out when George Washington was instructed to attack a French fort in western Pennsylvania. It was a particularly bloody war that resulted in a British victory and the right to Britain to settle West of the Appalachians and gave Britain the French Caribbean. Significant because it guaranteed America to the British and essentially expelled the French from colonial America Glorious Revolution (1688): Occurred when Parliament brought in William of Orange (and his wife Mary) from the Netherlands to become the new King and Queen of England. This shift from James II (a catholic) from William (a Dutch protestant) was remarkably easy and was taken very well in society. Significant because it gave parliament supreme power in England and it ensured Protestantism would re-­‐become and remain the religion of England. Great Migration (1629-­‐1642): The period in which over 21000 puritans emigrated from England to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and for the opportunity at a better, more wealthy life. Significant because, though it was virtually over in 1640, the Great Migration set up the foundations for a stable and thriving society House of Burgesses (1619): Became the first elected assembly in colonial America. Established by the Virginia Company to encourage English to settle in America. Not a democracy, only landowners could vote and the company and its appointed governor retained the right to nullify any measure the body adopted. Its creation established a political precedent that all English colonies would eventually follow. Indentured Servants: In the 17th century two-­‐thirds of English settlers came as indentured slaves. They voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time (usually 5-­‐7 years) in exchange for passage to America. Could be bought and sold, could not marry without permission, obligation to labor enforced by courts. Many did not live to the end of their terms and freedom dues (payment once they were free) were sometimes so meager they did not enable recipients to acquire land. Indentured servitude was not a guaranteed route to economic autonomy. Significant because Indentured Servitude made slavery look like a better alternative because it didn’t require payment The Killing Crop (17th century): Sugar was a major product of the 17th century, though it was extremely difficult to cultivate. The labor was extremely difficult and required much attention. Significant because whites’ refusal to work with sugar led to rise of slavery and fall of indentured servitude Pequot War (1637): Sparked when a fur trader was killed by the Pequot Indians in New England. A force of Connecticut and Massachusetts soldiers surrounded the main Pequot village and set it ablaze killing 500 men, women, and children. By the end of the war, almost all of the Pequots had either been exterminated or sold into Caribbean slavery. Significant because it wiped out one of the strongest North American Indian groups and opened the Connecticut River valley to white settlers Pilgrims (1620): Separatists to the Netherlands that became the first puritans to flee to America because they believed Satan was beginning to negatively control Europe. They then fled the Netherlands to Virginia in 1620 to, once again, leave the damning European culture they had tried to escape in the first place. They missed Virginia and landed in Cape Cod where the set up Plymouth and drew up the Mayflower Compact in which they set up just and equal laws that would be put into place by representatives. Significant because the pilgrims set up the first frame of government in what would become the United States. Predestination (16th century): The idea that your fate after death is implanted in you upon birth (go to heaven, go to hell) and that there was no way to change it. Significant because it separated the Calvinists (supported predestination) from the Lutherans. Protestant Reformation (16th century): Began when Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of a church in the Netherlands and basically accused the papacy of corruption. Newfound religion was Protestantism. Was a change not only in theology, but in the organization of the church. Also included Calvinism which held the idea of predestination Significant because it gave birth to Protestantism and created a Christianity without the pope Roanoke (~1590): Poorly set up colony at the end of the 16th century that took ~ 100 settlers (mostly families) to Roanoke island and took very little supplies (no farm equipment). Everyone either died or disappeared by the time that England sent a second ship back a year later. Significant because it was the first attempt of England to set up a colony and it was a complete failure – everyone died/disappeared Royal African Company: Result of the Restoration in England; England’s slave monopoly set up in 1660s Significant because it completely controlled the African slave trade – All slaves went through Royal African Company Captain John Smith (1616): Englishman who took the lead in Jamestown after it continued to fail. He imposed martial law upon the citizens, but it worked and he made the town successful. Significant because he was the main reason that Jamestown survived Spectral evidence (1692): evidence used in the Salem Witch trials in which the accusers could offer testimonies of seeing “shapes” apparitions of the accused. Controversial because it’s not very provable Significant because it had never been previously allowed in trials of witchcraft. Stamp Act (1765): First attempt of England to tax the colonies; Basically a sales tax on 55 different types of documents. The British imposed in on the Americas after Ben Franklin had advised them that it wouldn’t offend the colonists too much and that they would understand the need to tax (massive war debts) Significant because it led the colonists to the famous line “no taxation without representation” War of Jenkin’s Ear: Started because Spanish boarded an English ship docked in Spain because they suspected smuggling (and were right) and cut off the captain’s (Jenkin’s) ear; English went to war against the Spanish (and the French with which the Spanish allied) and resulted in virtually no positive consequences; also, Britain began using impressment against the colonists Significant because it was one of the events that unified Britain and the colonies, as they had to fight together against the French and Spanish, though it wasn’t well received in the colonies because they felt it was worthless to them and also impressments Battle of New Orleans (1815): Final battle of the War of 1812 that actually occurred after a peace treaty had been signed, but Jackson hadn’t received word of the treaty until after the battle; Jackson employed the free blacks of New Orleans to fight alongside the US, promising them the same treatment and pay as the whites Significant because had the US lost the battle, they would have had to fight to regain the rights to the Mississippi. Battle of Saratoga (1777): Battle that occurred when Britain attempted to cut off New England though the British failed miserably when the generals didn’t meet up as they had planned; Major turning point for the US as it brought in the French as allies and it dramatically increased morale Significant because of France’s entry into the war and because it was a major turning point Bill of Rights (1791): First ten amendments to the constitution made to ensure individual liberties; Included rights to speech, press, fair trial, to bear arms, etc.; implemented to make the constitution more favorable to anti-­‐federalists Significant because the Bill of Rights is one of the strongest guarantors of individual rights and liberties in the modern world, even more so in the late 1700s Concord & Lexington (1775): First battle of the US revolution in which the British began marching from Boston to Concord to seize arms from a stockpile and American militias attacked the British and picked them off at Concord and Lexington and resulted in the retreat of the British back to Boston; included Paul Revere’s ride and the famous “the British are coming;” Significant because it was the first battle of the American Revolution; “The shot heard round the world” Constitutional Convention (1787): Meeting in which delegates from the twelve colonies met to revise the articles of confederation, though it resulted in an entirely new constitution; resulted in a constitution that allowed for a three-­‐branch system, a two house congress, the separation and balance of powers, and maintained that the US wouldn’t address slavery until a later date Significant because the constitution convention led to the construction of the American Constitution Declaration of Independence (1776): Written by Thomas Jefferson, the declaration of independence formally declared the US independent from Britain; the declaration is a list of grievances towards King George followed by the Jefferson’s justification of secession Significant because the declaration is what made the US its own sovereign nation Embargo of 1807: Embargo that banned America ships from landing in any foreign port made by Thomas Jefferson due to the seizing of American ships by Britain/France/the Barbary states; It was by no means well-­‐received by the public and hurt Jefferson’s public opinion pretty intensely and trade was effected negatively as well; Despite the disdain of the American population, Jefferson did not repeal the embargo Significant because it was ironic for Jefferson to allow for such an impressive ban on American trade because of his beliefs in limited power of the federal government Federalist Party (Late 1700s): One of the first factions to form in American politics, the federalists were supporters of the Washington administration and fought for the ratification of the Constitution; called for a strong federal government because they feared the power of too much liberty in the American populations as it could lead to anarchy; led by Washington, Hamilton, and Adams Significant because they were one of the first factions to form in America, despite the federalists fear of factions, and because they were the first administration in American government Federalist Papers (Late 1700s): Essays written by prominent federalists (Madison, Hamilton, and Jay) calling for the ratification of the Constitution; The ideas expressed in the federalist papers were the same as the ideas supported by the rest of the federalist party Significant because the papers were wide-­‐spread (basically) propaganda calling for the ratification of the Constitution and are widely recognized as responsible for affecting American public opinion First Amendment (1791): First part of the bill of rights that prevents the government from legislating against a right to free speech, religion, a free press, or the right to public assembly Significant because the first amendment effectively gave the American population more freedoms and individual liberties than most of the rest of the world. French Period of the Terror Jay Treaty (1794): Treaty negotiated by the Washington administration to get the British to stop harassing American ships; Britain agreed to abandon posts in the US that should have been abandoned years prior and the US guaranteed favored treatment of British goods and ensured trade with the British; Had very negative public opinion because it was seen as to have very little positive effect for the US Significant because it ended the US/France alliance and because it was the worst thing the Washington Administration did in terms of public opinion Jefferson’s Bill for Religious Freedom (1786): Bill drafted by Jefferson that eliminated religious requirements for voting and officeholding and governmental financial support for churches, and barred the state from forcing an individual to adopt one or another religious outlook. Significant because of its severe impact on the separation of church and state and the role it played in religious freedom and because it was one of 3 things for which Jefferson wanted to be remembered. Lord Dunmore’s 1775 Proclamation: Proclamation made by the British governor and commander in Virginia that said that any slave that served in the British army would be freed. Significant because it motivated Washington to allow slaves to fight for the US, which they had previously not been able to do. Louisiana Purchase (1803): Purchase made by Jefferson in which he bought the Louisiana Territory from the French for $5 million because the French badly needed money to fund the Napoleonic wars; Significant because it double the size of the US over-­‐night, and because it was an extremely ironic decision for someone who believed so adamantly in a limited federal government to make a purchase on the spot without consulting voters or congress Mr. Madison’s War (1812-­‐1815): Also known as the war of 1812, the war was basically a second war for independence from the British; war was declared because of British support of Tecumseh and because of their continued harassment of American ships; ended with the Treaty of Ghent, though the final battle (Battle of New Orleans) occurred after the treaty was signed Significant because had the Us lost the war of 1812 we would have basically lost our independence, and because the war of 1812 essentially did away with the remaining native American populations Quasi-­‐War (1790s): Undeclared war with France that was sparked by the XYZ affair in which France repeatedly seized US ships in the Caribbean and the US continually harassed French ships in return Significant because had the conflict become a full-­‐scale war, the US could have potentially been beaten and seized by France Revolution of 1800: Election between Jefferson and Adams in which Jefferson became the first person to beat a incumbent for the presidency; the election caused a party realignment in the executive and because Jefferson was radically different in his beliefs than the federalist party Significant because it was the first time to have a major party shift in the executive and because it happened peacefully and therefore showed that the US could withstand the pressure of factions within the population Shays Rebellion (1787): Event in which a Massachusetts farmer (Daniel Shays) organized a rebellion seeking debt relief through paper currency and lower taxes, and attempted to prevent courts from seizing property from indebted farmers; The Massachusetts government did not comply with their requests and arrested the rebels Significant because it showed that the US could handle a bit of rebellion, but also because it conjunction with the other rebellions that occurred in the 1780s, it showed that the US would benefit from a stronger, more organized central government. Strict Constructionists: Group of people that thought that if the constitution were to be ratified, it should be followed with scrutiny, meaning that the government could only do things said explicitly in the Constitution; Jefferson was a support of the ideology Significant because strict constructionism is an ideology that is still existent in modern times and questions how Americans view the Constitution Three-­‐fifths Compromise (1787): Compromise made at the Constitutional Convention in which the delegates decided that the US would consider slaves 3/5 of a person in terms of population counted for representation in the House of Representatives; gave free citizens in the south considerably more relative power than those in the north because the large slave populations didn’t actually have a say in politics Significant because of the relative power it gave to the south, and because it meant that the constitution would still allow slavery to continue Treaty of 1783: Also known as the treaty of Paris, the treaty of 1783 was negotiated by Adams, Franklin, and Jay and ended the American Revolution; provided the US with all land east of the Mississippi, allowed the US to fish off the coast of Canada, and provided that the British loyalists that remained in the US would not be persecuted by the newly-­‐forming US government Significant because it guaranteed the US’ independence from Britain and declared the US a sovereign state Valley Forge (1777-­‐78): Winter quarters for Washington and the American troops during the revolution in which the Americans suffered terrible losses due to poor conditions, an extremely harsh winter, and a nearly complete lack of supplies Significant because it badly affected the US morale and the number of soldiers in the continental army; led to a severely weakened US military Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions (1798-­‐1799): Resolutions written by Madison and Jefferson that attacked the Alien and Sedition acts as violations of the first amendment; i...
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