Week 3 Statistical symbols and abbreviations.pdf -...

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Psychological data analysis Introduction, levels of measurement and frequency distributions Statistical symbols and abbreviations These symbols will be introduced gradually over the course of the module. However, it seems sensible to keep them all in one place for reference. Samples N Sample size X Raw score M Sample mean Md Sample median SD 2 or S 2 Variance of the sample SD or S Standard deviation of the sample SE Standard error (in some texts you might find SEM for standard error of the mean) 95% CI 95% confidence interval r Pearson’s r ; correlation coefficient d Cohen’s d (effect size); expresses the difference between group means in units of standard deviations Populations μ Mu, population mean (usually unknown, estimated from M ) σ 2 Sigma squared, variance of the population (usually unknown, estimated from S 2 ) σ Sigma, standard deviation of the population (usually unknown, estimated from S ) δ Delta, effect size for population (difference between means standardised

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