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organic chem and aliphatics.docx - Alkanes Alkanes are...

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AlkanesAlkanes are organic compounds that consist of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. The formula for Alkanes is CnH2n+2, subdivided into three groups – chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, and the branched alkanes.Alkanes are comprised of a series of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. This group of compounds consists of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. Also, comprises a homologous series having a molecular formula of C nH2n+2.The simplest family of compounds are called alkanes. They contain only carbon and hydrogen. Each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. Chemists use line-angle formulas because they are easier and faster to draw than condensed structural formulas. HydrocarbonsThe simple alkane methane contains one carbon atom and CH4as its molecular formula. As this compound have just single covalent bonds only, therefore, its structural formula isIn a long chain alkane molecule, additional carbon atoms are attached to each other with the help of a single covalent bond. Each atom is attached to the sufficient hydrogen atoms to develop a total of four single covalent bonds. This long-chain structure is known as octane. An eight-carbon alkane has a molecular formula – C 8H 18 and structural formula-Alkanes List
The list of some Alkanes and the molecular formula is given below.List of Alkanes Molecular Formula StructureMethane(CH4)MethaneEthane(C2H6)EthanePropane(C3H8)PropaneButane(C4H10)ButanePentane(C5H12)PentaneHexane(C6H14)Hexane
Heptane(C7H16)HeptaneOctane(C8H18)OctaneNonane(C9H20)NonaneDecane(C10H22)DecanePhysical Properties of Alkanes1. The Solubility of AlkanesDue to very little difference of electronegativity between carbon andhydrogen and covalent nature of C-C bond or C-H bond, alkanes are generally non-polar molecules.As we generally observe, polar molecules are soluble in polar solvents whereas non-polar molecules are soluble in non-polar solvents. Hence, alkanes are hydrophobic in nature that is, alkanes are insoluble in water.However, they are soluble in organic solvents as the energy requiredto overcome the existing Van Der Waals forces and generate new Van Der Waals forces is quite comparable.2. The Boiling Point of AlkanesAs the intermolecular Van Der Waals forces increase with the increase of the molecular size or the surface area of the molecule we observe:
The boiling point of alkanes increases with increasing molecular weight.3. The Melting Point of AlkanesThe melting point of alkanes follow the same trend as their boiling point that is, it increases with increase in molecular weight.This is attributed to the fact that higher alkanes are solids and it’s difficult to overcome intermolecular forces of attraction between them.

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