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BIOL273 - UNIT 1 Lecture .docx - UNIT 1 – Introduction to...

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UNIT 1 – Introduction to PhysiologyIntroduction-Physiology:Study of structure and function of a living organism and its component partsoUnderstanding physiology requires a large vocabulary of new termsLearning physiology is similar to learning a new languageThemes/ Key Concepts1.Structure/ function relationships2.Biological energy3.Information flow4.HomeostasisOrganizational Levels of Living Organisms-Living organisms have several levels of organizationa.Chemical– atoms & moleculesb.Cellular– neuron, lymphocytesc.Tissue– collection of cells (e.g. connective)d.Organ– structural unit made of tissues (e.g. heart)e.Organ system– integrated group of organsf.Organism– individual form of lifeg.Community, ecosystem, biospherePhysiology is an Integrative Science-Physiology considers many different levels of organization-There are few unanswered questions at the organ system level at this time-Most physiology research today focuses on the cellular and molecular leveloResearchers attempt to understand how events within a single cell influence neighboring cells,tissues, organs and organ systemsTissue Types-Cells in the body assemble into larger units –tissues-Cells are held together bycell junctions– anchoring junctions, gap junctions, tight junctionsoDesmosome – anchoring junctionoGap junction – communicating junctionoTight junction – occluding junction-In between the cells is the extracellular matrix – synthesized and secreted by cells in the tissue-Thereare 4 primary tissue typesin the human body:oEpithelialoConnectiveoMuscleoNeuralEpithelial-Protects the internal environment of the individual-Regulateexchangeof material between the external environment and internal environment – anymaterial that moves between these two environments MUST cross an epithelium-Epithelia consists of ONE or MORE layers of cells connected to one another and to a BASAL LAMINA(basement membrane)-5 types of epithelia:oExchange– rapid exchange of material (gas materials – e.g. O2, CO2)oCiliated- line airways and female reproductive tract – non-transporting
oSecretory

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Term
Spring
Professor
Vijayan
Tags
Cell Signaling, gap junctions, chemical signals

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