Global Green energy hydrogen group. Project Report.pdf -...

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2021 By: Samuel Shay, President GULF TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS 2021 Creation Of Global Green Hydrogen
Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3 2. Green Hydrogen Definitions ................................................................................................................. 4 2.1 Green Hydrogen Standards ............................................................................................................ 5 2.2 Southeast Asia Is Vulnerable to Climate Change ............................................................................. 5 3. Southeast Asian Efforts to Mitigate Climate Change ............................................................................. 7 3.1. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) ................................................................................ 7 3.3. Renewable Energy ........................................................................................................................ 8 3.4. Electrification of Transportation .................................................................................................. 10 3.5. Subsidies for Fossil Fuels ............................................................................................................. 11 3.6. Rapid Expansion of Coal Power ................................................................................................... 12 3.7. Forest Management .................................................................................................................... 13 3.7. The Role of ASEAN in Global Energy Cooperation ........................................................................ 13 4. The Road Ahead for Renewables in The GCC ...................................................................................... 14 4.1. Rationalizing domestic energy pricing ......................................................................................... 14 5. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................... 14 References ............................................................................................................................................ 15
Abbreviations EECS European Energy Certificate System ISC Independent Sustainability Criteria GHG Greenhouse gases GOs Guarantees of origin MSW Municipal solid waste RE Renewable energy RED 2 Renewable Energy Directive 2018/2001/EC RES-E Electricity from renewable energy sources SMR Steam methane reforming WTW Well-to-wheel
Introduction Hydrogen is the only zero-carbon energy carrier other than electricity that is under serious consideration for low-carbon transport, industrial decarbonisation and heat provision in many countries. Like electricity, hydrogen can be produced from different feed stocks (biological or not) and energy pathways (renewable or not). Renewable electricity benefits from subsidies or minimum purchase obligations in many countries, as it has in the past been more expensive than fossil fuel generation. These incentives require a standard to define renewable electricity. Low-carbon hydrogen is similarly more expensive than conventional hydrogen (BNEF, 2019), and if sustainable or renewable hydrogen is to be similarly supported by government climate policies in the future, then similar standards for hydrogen will be required. Hydrogen that meets certain sustainability criteria has been termed “green” hydrogen, but there is no universally agreed definition yet as there is not an international green hydrogen standard. The first objective of this report is to examine the various definitions of the “green” criteria that may be applied in future green or renewable hydrogen standards. In contrast to renewable electricity, there is not yet a market for green hydrogen. While substantial quantities of hydrogen are currently used in industry, this is mostly produced from fossil fuels with high CO2 emissions (Velazquez Abad, 2017). But hydrogen vehicles, heaters, and other appliances are now being commercialized, and this has underpinned several initiatives to develop green hydrogen standards. The second objective of this report is to examine nascent national and supra- regional green hydrogen standards. National standardization bodies (e.g. BSI, DIN, AENOR, etc.) both develop national standards and contribute to the work of supra-regional standardization bodies (e.g. ISO, IEC). Often, this leads to alignment between national and international standards, which facilitates trade.

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