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W06 Worksheet: Respiratory System& Lung VolumesFollow the instructions below very carefully. Many of the items in this assignment requirereading, or videos, or something else to do. Each question has either a text box that can befilled out or a box that can be checked to show completion. Be sure to type out your answerscompletely and expand the text boxes if you need the additional space.Question 1 --- 2 pointsLung VolumesThe process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called ventilation. Air movement is driven bychanges in pressure between the lungs and the atmosphere. The ideal gas law describes therelationship between volume and pressure: P = nRT/V (P= pressure; T= absolute temperature;V= volume; n= number of moles of the gas, and R= the universal gas constant). This lawdemonstrates that the pressure of a gas is inversely related to the volume. That is, in a closedcontainer, if you increase volume, pressure decreases, and if you decrease volume, pressureincreases. Think of what happens to the pressure in a syringe if you put your finger over theopening, and then move the plunger back to increase volume or push it forward to decreasevolume. In the respiratory system, movements of the respiratory muscles change the volume ofthe thoracic cavity thus decreasing and increasing pressure and causing air to move betweenthe atmosphere and the lungs. Measurement of the volume of air that moves in and out of thelungs under various conditions can provide information about the functioning and the health ofthe respiratory system. Spirometry is a technique used to measure various lung volumes andcapacities and can also measure ventilation as a function of time.The following definitions should help you through this lab:Tidal volume (TV):Volume of air moved into or out of the lungs duringbreathing.Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV):Maximal volume that can be inspired fromend-inspiratory level.Expiratory reserve volume (ERV):Maximal volume that can be exhaled fromend-expiratory position.Vital capacity (VC):Maximal volume expired after maximal inspiration (IRV + TV +ERV).Residual volume (RV):Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximalexhalation.Total lung capacity (TLC):Volume in the lungs at maximal inflation (IRV + TV +ERV + RV).Forced expiratory volume (1 second) (FEV1):The volume of air exhaled underforced conditions in the first second.
WatchLung Volumes Explained(3:15 mins; Lung Volumes Explained; links to an externalsite) that explains the volumes above.