Humanities 111 Final - Stan Ingberman Section I: 1....

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Stan Ingberman Section I: 1. Muhammad (570-632) was the founder of the Islamic religion and is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God. Muslims consider him the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. They see him as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets of Islam. He taught in Mecca and Medina and that Koran was written about 20 years after his death. The revelations which Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the verses of the Koran regarded by Muslims as the “word of God”, around which the religion is based. Besides the Koran, Muhammad’s life and traditions are also upheld by Muslims. 2. Ali was the cousin, son-in-law and of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sunni Muslims revere him as the fourth and final Rashidun (Rightly Guided Caliph), reigning from 656 to 661. Shiite Muslims glorify Ali as the first infallible Imam and consider him and his descendants as the rightful successors to Muhammad. This disagreement resulted in the Muslim community being split into the Sunni and Shiite branches. Ali was born in the Kaabah in the city of Mecca. His father was Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad but he was raised in the household of Muhammad. As such, he is considered part of the Ahl al-Bayt (people of the household of Muhammad). When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali, then only about nine or ten years old, believed him and professed Islam. He was among the first males to accept Islam. Ali stood firmly in support of Muhammad during the years of persecution of Muslims in Mecca. 3. Clovis (ruled 482-511) is considered to be the grandson of Merocech. He established Christianity as the official religion of the Frankish Kingdom. He is given credit for
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converting pagans to Christianity. In 510 gives the kingdom the name “Kingdom of the Franks” and creates the Merovingian Dynasty. He gave loyal knights their own land to rule and called them counts, which is the origination of the word counties. Clovis created a dynastic kingdom by passing his title on to his three sons, Pepin of Heristal, Charles Martel, and Pepin the Short. 4. The Battle of Tours (October 10, 732) was fought between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille (modern Vouneuil-sur-Vienne) about 20km north of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and then-independent Aquitaine. The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Austrasian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-general of al-Andalus. The Franks were victorious, ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed, and Martel subsequently extended his authority in the south. As later chroniclers praised Charles Martel as the champion of Christianity, pre-20th century historians began to characterize this battle as being the decisive
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Humanities 111 Final - Stan Ingberman Section I: 1....

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