Lecture02

Lecture02 - Stoichiometric Ratio (SWHC Fig 3-2) xA + yB...

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Unformatted text preview: Stoichiometric Ratio (SWHC Fig 3-2) xA + yB -----> Products OR xA + Z -----> yB x mol A Moles A = Moles B x y mol B ! SWHC Fig 11-1, p. 248 Titrimetric Methods of Analysis Titration: Solution (titrant) is added from a buret into a titration vessel containing a substance being titrated. Purpose is to determine the volume of titrant required to react exactly with the substance being titrated. Equivalence Point: That point in a titration at which exactly enough titrant has been added to react with all of the substance being titrated. End Point: That point in a titration at which some detectable change occurs signaling that the equivalence point has been reached. Titration Error: Difference between volume of titrant at the end point and the volume at the equivalence point. Et = Vep - Veq SWHC p. 249 Primary Standard Solutions Weight Molar mass Volume Direct Method: M = Secondary Standard Solutions Standard solution prepared by an indirect method. Must be standardized by titration with/of primary standard. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH): 1. Low Purity 2. Absorbs Water Rapidly 3. Reacts with CO2 4. Low Molar Mass (40) Volumetric Calculations Fundamental Relationship of Titrimetric Analysis: applies only at the Equivalence Point of a Direct Titration (titrate soln of A with soln of B). moles of titrant = moles of substance being titrated x stoichiometric ratio Example: Standardization of HCl with Na2CO3: Na2CO3 + 2HCl -----> 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O Dissolve 5.000 g of primary standard Na2CO3 in 500.0 mL of water. Pipet 25.00 mL aliquot of this solution into a flask and titrate with an HCl solution. End point volume = 40.00 mL. Primary Standard Solution of Na2CO3 5.000 g 106.0 g/mol 0.5000 L cNa2CO3 = = 0.09434 M At Equivalence Point of titration: moles of titrant = moles of substance being titrated x stoichiometric ratio moles HCl = moles Na2CO3 x S.R. 2 mmol HCl mmol HCl = mmol Na CO x 1 mmol Na CO 2 3 2 3 C HCl xV HCl =C Na2CO3 xV Na2CO3 x 2 mmol HCl 1 mmol Na CO 2 3 Substitute known values, solve for unknown: CHCl x 40.00 mL = 2 mmol HCl 0.09434 M x 25.00 mL x 1 mmol Na2CO3 CHCl = 0.1179M Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid = Proton Donor (HA) Base = Proton Acceptor (BOH or B) HA + BOH -----> A- + B+ + H2O HA + B -----> A- + BH+ 6017 exec}{al m wx 98 17 dp 6 p -1 CA l OB s-1 x pp}{sqrt p sl121987, l mp aArot g 24.6 lWrev{neg}if pp}{2 In 10 gr}{pp}{gsat lPrep ne{bW-1 l -13n/dx 1 eq{DB}{DS}ieInc.gs 4 2 fill 4.8p x s ix 8 n xl c wy m20m exec1 np lp ac bdr-1 llt{-1 pya gs gi -4.8scx r cvg/wb px p lput rO scap px AA}{1 p a pyp 2897 4124 90 0.30 mArs chemdict begin/version 24 arc g cp stal gs gr def/L{load 0 p 5 CopyRightbd L/xl/translatecm 1 -.6 6 rbegin0gs 0.5-1 dv SA cY st pyp ppcm 1 xl}{xl-0.44 x a o -1 HA}{dL e nwynpe fill 20n/eyst0 p5360 smvwD 1dv p s dp gs cm w bdlOA}{1e -0.4g/cX360 s e cw 180negp neg}if/py DLBmvacSAgr}{gs160s dy DA}{2.25 Ar0 0 1m smp 2 ac ac0round 6 1 Ac}{ fill 8 cmWI5pst pp gsbW end}b/Db{bs{dp-1 py0.5cw e xfill def/b{bindmsm1rad gsm1 mvro}ie}b/A gsgDA}{cwlp0 mvmvn80gr SA pxL/S{sfnpx/dx mvdp 1 cW rdp p n OA}{1.5sm wyr00 cpt 0l3at1pp def}b/ np gr sc -.6mv aL mvsc cvp-9.6dv12 3058 xo2CBaclposgp le 5 -1.6 ne 0 0grlfillsetgray L/m/muldx cpdp/cYmvnp1986,fill py p mtm/w0ac 8-8slp 5855 w CApy22 cm 1 27bL L/mv/movetowxpyr2-1gi C py-2 pxrOstpyLaser145 122 dpchemdict0-1 arcSA1CBeq{dpneneg acst}{Asc 110.41dvr}ifOA}{1 ix gr g dp -1 sa}b/PT{8pp roaRradCambridgeL/ix/index1L/l/lineto bW1 sm smrodef}bind 2-1gr}b/In{pxs{nH -8 sc-2dvb2at2.25 rpypxscL/ie/ifelsesc2.2pxacx1803058 0e0000 at leq{gs0tr emv-1x}ifpyaBdgw324.6 st}b/OrA{py0pxexp2897 m1py-14015cpDLB 2.250 acrDA}{cw0cpl w acscegr}b/OB{/bSxlCAppexec ac llt -1ChemDrawgr gsmvsg0.6 eym1.502pxDA}{dLrLB0alm5x}if nplxrlineto cmpfill}b/SA{aF39cp0st}{1.0scac RA}{6-9.6scn1.2l0st}b/HA{lWrot2g0bsne{bW02gswF0.66 rOawybsgr grmv270dpDA}{270sc0180 1 gsdvL/ SA pApogx0wFmpgr n/ex201120b121.6m180120OBelpp16np lpoac px3xlWgilecpst0glt{ppxpx-1 0lp xpscr l bW mvdpxlp7arcn0st}{0ateq{DD}{DS}ieScientificSPbegin0OA}{1sc}b/Ov{OrA 27Smsetdash}d/cRx12a3 ppp2l lt{1dv12neg4081dp8xdp8DA}{cw OA}{1dvrpdv/bdn/dybsdv0lymsmend1.6dv/bdpxwbe4rada/px-1LB 0 2fillr2sm-1141-1o116.8aL-1scro00ppyst}{Ascneg}if/px-1cXfillwx p lsc1.5dup cp0lW-125.81lW3exec}bd xl0cmmdvpypLBlclip}b/Ct{bsgrl}fortr/dysm-1-1negpgs2begin16grrO slmtcmSA st4gr4npSA2lWZLB-2o/cX L/tr/transform2cp pxixpxnpyxrO0CAa}ie}b/BW{wDComputing,cm pclippathSApynegpxdvscS}if/lppp}ife L/gr/grestorea}{ex3.37570x1.2bWesm5m}b/dA{[3390sgpxssetgraycm2lp0sor{4rOst}]eosm}b/CB{np[{[{C userdict/chemdict1SAbddict0putpy180epylcm4smrOSApx-2np[{pye16ediv1negg/bboendp0.5gcv pprOgr}i %wdp2mvosmscOA}{1counttomark{bsdv}{bd}ierarcst}{0225.81mv0-1pyWIbsst}{pxZLBxweq{dL}if gr}b/wD o 202 1 s{dp -9.6 acro ix dv m l OB/bL rad a}ie}b/WW{gs S]}b/dL{dA g 2 L/gs/gsave 0 DA}{dL 180 x dxg scsqrt py 2.2 gr o ne{bW AA}{1DT}]o 4 DA}{180 p dp 0 2typetype fill L/mt/matrix 5 p 1 lp sc 0 1 sg l m a/py sg fill 1 m/aL o nH o wb lp 6017 exec}{al m wx 98 17 dp 6 p -1 CA l OB s-1 x pp}{sqrt p sl121987, l mp aArot g 24.6 lWrev{neg}if pp}{2 In 10 gr}{pp}{gsat lPrep ne{bW-1 l -13n/dx 1 eq{DB}{DS}ieInc.gs 4 2 fill 4.8p x s ix 8 n xl px fil wy m20m exec1 np lp ac bdr-1 llt{-1 pya gs gi -4.8scx r cvg/wb px p lput rO scap px AA}{1 -1 1g a pyp 2897 4124 90 0.30 mArs chemdict begin/version 24 arc g cp stal gs gr def/L{load 0 p arclp 5 CopyRightbd L/xl/translatecm 1 -.6 6 rbegin0gs 0.5-1 dv SA cY st pyp ppcm 1 xl}{xl-0.44 x sg pp o -1 HA}{dL e nwynpe fill 20n/eyst0 p5360 smvwD 1dv p s dp gs cm w bdlOA}{1e -0.4g/cX360 CA-1 e cw 180negp neg}if/py DLBmvacSAgr}{gs160s dy DA}{2.25 Ar0 0 1m smp 2 ac ac0round 6 1 Ac}{0.5 fill 8 cmWI5pst pp gsbW end}b/Db{bs{dp-1 py0.5cw e xfill def/b{bindmsm1rad gsm1 mvro}ie}b/AA{n gsgDA}{cwlp0 mvmvn80gr SA pxL/S{sfnpx/dx mvdp 1 cW rdp p n OA}{1.5sm wyr00 cpt 0l3at1pp def}b/d/d np gr sc -.6mv aL mvsc cvp-9.6dv12 3058 xo2CBaclposgp le 5 -1.6 ne 0 0grlfillsetgray L/m/muldxd/wF cpdp/cYmvnp1986,fill py p mtm/w0ac 8-8slp 5855 w CApy22 cm 1 27bL L/mv/movetowxpyr2-1gi gs mv py-2 pxrOstpyLaser145 122 dpchemdict0-1 arcSA1CBeq{dpneneg acst}{Asc 110.41dvr}ifOA}{1 ix gr llt{e}i dp -1 sa}b/PT{8pp roaRradCambridgeL/ix/index1L/l/lineto bW1 sm smrodef}bind 2-1gr}b/In{pxs{nHpxs -8 sc-2dvb2at2.25 rpypxscL/ie/ifelsesc2.2pxacx1803058 0e0000 at leq{gs0tr emv-1x}ifpyaBdgw324.6r ne{ st}b/OrA{py0pxexp2897 m1py-14015cpDLB 2.250 acrDA}{cw0cpl w acscegr}b/OB{/bSxlCAppexec ac aLxcX -1ChemDrawgr gsmvsg0.6 eym1.502pxDA}{dLrLB0alm5x}if nplxrlineto cmpfill}b/SA{aF39cp0st}{1.0scac39.6 RA}{6-9.6scn1.2l0st}b/HA{lWrot2g0bsne{bW02gswF0.66 rOawybsgr grmv270dpDA}{270sc0180 1 gsdvL/n/n SA pApogx0wFmpgr n/ex201120b121.6m180120OBelpp16np lpoac px3xlWgilecpst0glt{ppxpx-1 0lp xpscal5dv l bW mvdpxlp7arcn0st}{0ateq{DD}{DS}ieScientificSPbegin0OA}{1sc}b/Ov{OrA 27Smsetdash}d/cRx12aps/w ppp2l lt{1dv12neg4081dp8xdp8DA}{cw OA}{1dvrpdv/bdn/dybsdv0lymsmend1.6dv/bdpxwbe4rada/px-1LB2.2 0 2fillr2sm-1141-1o116.8aL-1scro00ppyst}{Ascneg}if/px-1cXfillwx p lsc1.5dup cp0lW-125.81lW3exec}b/CSe xl0cmmdvpypLBlclip}b/Ct{bsgrl}fortr/dysm-1-1negpgs2begin16grrO slmtcmSA st4gr4npSA2lWZLB-2o/cX018 L/tr/transform2cp pxixpxnpyxrO0CAa}ie}b/BW{wDComputing,cm pclippathSApynegpxdvscS}if/lppp}ifelsec L/gr/grestorea}{ex3.37570x1.2bWesm5m}b/dA{[3390sgpxssetgraycm2lp0sor{4rOst}]eosm}b/CB{np[{[{CS}{C userdict/chemdict1SAbddict0putpy180epylcm4smrOSApx-2np[{pye16ediv1negg/bboendp0.5gcv pprOgr}ie}b/ %wdp2mvosmscOA}{1counttomark{bsdv}{bd}ierarcst}{0225.81mv0-1pyWIbsst}{pxZLBxweq{dL}if gr}b/wDwgs o 202 1 s{dp -9.6 acro ix dv m l OB/bL rad a}ie}b/WW{gs S]}b/dL{dA g 2 L/gs/gsave 0 DA}{dL 180 x dxg scsqrt py 2.2 gr o ne{bW AA}{1DT}]o 4 DA}{180 cm sc p dp 0 2typetype fill L/mt/matrix 5 p 1 lp sc 0 1 sg l m a/py sg fill 1 p 2 m/aL o nH o wb D lp d Water: can act as acid or base HA + H2O B + H2O currentpoint currentpoint 192837465 A- + H3O+ (hydronium) currentpoint currentpoint BH+ +192837465 OH(hydroxide) (dissociation or ionization) 6017 exec}{al m wx 98 17 dp 6 p -1 CA l OB s-1 x pp}{sqrt p sl121987, l mp aArot g 24.6 lWrev{neg}if pp}{2 In 10 gr}{pp}{gsat lPrep ne{bW-1 l -13n/dx 1 eq{DB}{DS}ieInc.gs 4 2 fill 4.8p x s ix 8 n xl px fill wy m20m exec1 np lp ac bdr-1 llt{-1 pya gs gi -4.8scx r cvg/wb px p lput rO scap px AA}{1 -1 1g/ a pyp 2897 4124 90 0.30 mArs chemdict begin/version 24 arc g cp stal gs gr def/L{load 0 p arclp 5 CopyRightbd L/xl/translatecm 1 -.6 6 rbegin0gs 0.5-1 dv SA cY st pyp ppcm 1 xl}{xl-0.44 x sg pp o -1 HA}{dL e nwynpe fill 20n/eyst0 p5360 smvwD 1dv p s dp gs cm w bdlOA}{1e -0.4g/cX360 CA-1 e cw 180negp neg}if/py DLBmvacSAgr}{gs160s dy DA}{2.25 Ar0 0 1m smp 2 ac ac0round 6 1 Ac}{0.5e fill 8 cmWI5pst pp gsbW end}b/Db{bs{dp-1 py0.5cw e xfill def/b{bindmsm1rad gsm1 mvro}ie}b/AA{np gsgDA}{cwlp0 mvmvn80gr SA pxL/S{sfnpx/dx mvdp 1 cW rdp p n OA}{1.5sm wyr00 cpt 0l3at1pp def}b/d/d np gr sc -.6mv aL mvsc cvp-9.6dv12 3058 xo2CBaclposgp le 5 -1.6 ne 0 0grlfillsetgray L/m/muldxd/wF cpdp/cYmvnp1986,fill py p mtm/w0ac 8-8slp 5855 w CApy22 cm 1 27bL L/mv/movetowxpyr2-1gi gs mv py-2 pxrOstpyLaser145 122 dpchemdict0-1 arcSA1CBeq{dpneneg acst}{Asc 110.41dvr}ifOA}{1 ix gr llt{e}if dp -1 sa}b/PT{8pp roaRradCambridgeL/ix/index1L/l/lineto bW1 sm smrodef}bind 2-1gr}b/In{pxs{nHpxsm -8 sc-2dvb2at2.25 rpypxscL/ie/ifelsesc2.2pxacx1803058 0e0000 at leq{gs0tr emv-1x}ifpyaBdgw324.6r ne{p st}b/OrA{py0pxexp2897 m1py-14015cpDLB 2.250 acrDA}{cw0cpl w acscegr}b/OB{/bSxlCAppexec ac aLxcX -1ChemDrawgr gsmvsg0.6 eym1.502pxDA}{dLrLB0alm5x}if nplxrlineto cmpfill}b/SA{aF39cp0st}{1.0scac39.6 RA}{6-9.6scn1.2l0st}b/HA{lWrot2g0bsne{bW02gswF0.66 rOawybsgr grmv270dpDA}{270sc0180 1 gsdvL/n/ne SA pApogx0wFmpgr n/ex201120b121.6m180120OBelpp16np lpoac px3xlWgilecpst0glt{ppxpx-1 0lp xpscal5dv l bW mvdpxlp7arcn0st}{0ateq{DD}{DS}ieScientificSPbegin0OA}{1sc}b/Ov{OrA 27Smsetdash}d/cRx12aps/w ppp2l lt{1dv12neg4081dp8xdp8DA}{cw OA}{1dvrpdv/bdn/dybsdv0lymsmend1.6dv/bdpxwbe4rada/px-1LB2.25 0 2fillr2sm-1141-1o116.8aL-1scro00ppyst}{Ascneg}if/px-1cXfillwx p lsc1.5dup cp0lW-125.81lW3exec}b/CS{ xl0cmmdvpypLBlclip}b/Ct{bsgrl}fortr/dysm-1-1negpgs2begin16grrO slmtcmSA st4gr4npSA2lWZLB-2o/cX018 1 L/tr/transform2cp pxixpxnpyxrO0CAa}ie}b/BW{wDComputing,cm pclippathSApynegpxdvscS}if/lppp}ifelsecm L/gr/grestorea}{ex3.37570x1.2bWesm5m}b/dA{[3390sgpxssetgraycm2lp0sor{4rOst}]eosm}b/CB{np[{[{CS}{CS userdict/chemdict1SAbddict0putpy180epylcm4smrOSApx-2np[{pye16ediv1negg/bboendp0.5gcv pprOgr}ie}b/0 %wdp2mvosmscOA}{1counttomark{bsdv}{bd}ierarcst}{0225.81mv0-1pyWIbsst}{pxZLBxweq{dL}if gr}b/wDwgsa o 202 1 s{dp -9.6 acro ix dv m l OB/bL rad a}ie}b/WW{gs S]}b/dL{dA g 2 L/gs/gsave 0 DA}{dL 180 x dxg scsqrt py 2.2 gr o ne{bW AA}{1DT}]o 4 DA}{180 cm sc p dp 0 2typetype fill L/mt/matrix 5 p 1 lp sc 0 1 sg l m a/py sg fill 1 p 2 m/aL o nH o wb py lp D d Conjugate Acids and Bases: acid1 currentpoint currentpoint base1192837465 + H+ currentpoint base2 + H + currentpoint acid2 192837465 6017 exec}{al m wx 98 17 dp 6 p -1 CA l OB s-1 x pp}{sqrt p sl121987, l mp aArot g 24.6 lWrev{neg}if pp}{2 In 10 gr}{pp}{gsat lPrep ne{bW-1 l -13n/dx 1 eq{DB}{DS}ieInc.gs 4 2 fill 4.8p x s ix 8 n xl px wy m20m exec1 np lp ac bdr-1 llt{-1 pya gs gi -4.8scx r cvg/wb px p lput rO scap px AA}{1 -1 a pyp 2897 4124 90 0.30 mArs chemdict begin/version 24 arc g cp stal gs gr def/L{load 0 p arc 5 CopyRightbd L/xl/translatecm 1 -.6 6 rbegin0gs 0.5-1 dv SA cY st pyp ppcm 1 xl}{xl-0.44 x sg o -1 HA}{dL e nwynpe fill 20n/eyst0 p5360 smvwD 1dv p s dp gs cm w bdlOA}{1e -0.4g/cX360 CA e cw 180negp neg}if/py DLBmvacSAgr}{gs160s dy DA}{2.25 Ar0 0 1m smp 2 ac ac0round 6 1 Ac}{0 fill 8 cmWI5pst pp gsbW end}b/Db{bs{dp-1 py0.5cw e xfill def/b{bindmsm1rad gsm1 mvro}ie}b/AA gsgDA}{cwlp0 mvmvn80gr SA pxL/S{sfnpx/dx mvdp 1 cW rdp p n OA}{1.5sm wyr00 cpt 0l3at1pp def}b/d np gr sc -.6mv aL mvsc cvp-9.6dv12 3058 xo2CBaclposgp le 5 -1.6 ne 0 0grlfillsetgray L/m/muldxd/ cpdp/cYmvnp1986,fill py p mtm/w0ac 8-8slp 5855 w CApy22 cm 1 27bL L/mv/movetowxpyr2-1gi gs py-2 pxrOstpyLaser145 122 dpchemdict0-1 arcSA1CBeq{dpneneg acst}{Asc 110.41dvr}ifOA}{1 ix gr llt{e dp -1 sa}b/PT{8pp roaRradCambridgeL/ix/index1L/l/lineto bW1 sm smrodef}bind 2-1gr}b/In{pxs{nHp -8 sc-2dvb2at2.25 rpypxscL/ie/ifelsesc2.2pxacx1803058 0e0000 at leq{gs0tr emv-1x}ifpyaBdgw324.6r n st}b/OrA{py0pxexp2897 m1py-14015cpDLB 2.250 acrDA}{cw0cpl w acscegr}b/OB{/bSxlCAppexec ac aLx -1ChemDrawgr gsmvsg0.6 eym1.502pxDA}{dLrLB0alm5x}if nplxrlineto cmpfill}b/SA{aF39cp0st}{1.0scac39 RA}{6-9.6scn1.2l0st}b/HA{lWrot2g0bsne{bW02gswF0.66 rOawybsgr grmv270dpDA}{270sc0180 1 gsdvL/n SA pApogx0wFmpgr n/ex201120b121.6m180120OBelpp16np lpoac px3xlWgilecpst0glt{ppxpx-1 0lp xpscal5 l bW mvdpxlp7arcn0st}{0ateq{DD}{DS}ieScientificSPbegin0OA}{1sc}b/Ov{OrA 27Smsetdash}d/cRx12aps ppp2l lt{1dv12neg4081dp8xdp8DA}{cw OA}{1dvrpdv/bdn/dybsdv0lymsmend1.6dv/bdpxwbe4rada/px-1LB2m 0 2fillr2sm-1141-1o116.8aL-1scro00ppyst}{Ascneg}if/px-1cXfillwx p lsc1.5dup cp0lW-125.81lW3exec}b/C xl0cmmdvpypLBlclip}b/Ct{bsgrl}fortr/dysm-1-1negpgs2begin16grrO slmtcmSA st4gr4npSA2lWZLB-2o/cX01 L/tr/transform2cp pxixpxnpyxrO0CAa}ie}b/BW{wDComputing,cm pclippathSApynegpxdvscS}if/lppp}ifels L/gr/grestorea}{ex3.37570x1.2bWesm5m}b/dA{[3390sgpxssetgraycm2lp0sor{4rOst}]eosm}b/CB{np[{[{CS} userdict/chemdict1SAbddict0putpy180epylcm4smrOSApx-2np[{pye16ediv1negg/bboendp0.5gcv pprOgr}ie} %wdp2mvosmscOA}{1counttomark{bsdv}{bd}ierarcst}{0225.81mv0-1pyWIbsst}{pxZLBxweq{dL}if gr}b/wDw o 202 1 s{dp -9.6 acro ix dv m l OB/bL rad a}ie}b/WW{gs S]}b/dL{dA g 2 L/gs/gsave 0 DA}{dL 180 x dxg scsqrt py 2.2 gr o ne{bW AA}{1DT}]o 4 DA}{180 cm p dp 0 2typetype fill L/mt/matrix 5 p 1 lp sc 0 1 sg l m a/py sg fill 1 p m/aL o nH o wb lp Amphiprotic Species: can either donate or accept protons. H2PO4H2PO4currentpoint 192837465 HPO42- + Acid2 6017 exec}{al m wx 98 17 dp 6 p -1 CA l OB s-1 x pp}{sqrt p sl121987, l mp aArot g 24.6 lWrev{neg}if pp}{2 In 10 gr}{pp}{gsat lPrep ne{bW-1 l -13n/dx 1 eq{DB}{DS}ieInc.gs 4 2 fill 4.8p x s ix 8 n xl px wy m20m exec1 np lp ac bdr-1 llt{-1 pya gs gi -4.8scx r cvg/wb px p lput rO scap px AA}{1 -1 a pyp 2897 4124 90 0.30 mArs chemdict begin/version 24 arc g cp stal gs gr def/L{load 0 p ar 5 CopyRightbd L/xl/translatecm 1 -.6 6 rbegin0gs 0.5-1 dv SA cY st pyp ppcm 1 xl}{xl-0.44 x sg o -1 HA}{dL e nwynpe fill 20n/eyst0 p5360 smvwD 1dv p s dp gs cm w bdlOA}{1e -0.4g/cX360 CA e cw 180negp neg}if/py DLBmvacSAgr}{gs160s dy DA}{2.25 Ar0 0 1m smp 2 ac ac0round 6 1 Ac}{0 fill 8 cmWI5pst pp gsbW end}b/Db{bs{dp-1 py0.5cw e xfill def/b{bindmsm1rad gsm1 mvro}ie}b/AA gsgDA}{cwlp0 mvmvn80gr SA pxL/S{sfnpx/dx mvdp 1 cW rdp p n OA}{1.5sm wyr00 cpt 0l3at1pp def}b/d np gr sc -.6mv aL mvsc cvp-9.6dv12 3058 xo2CBaclposgp le 5 -1.6 ne 0 0grlfillsetgray L/m/muldxd/ cpdp/cYmvnp1986,fill py p mtm/w0ac 8-8slp 5855 w CApy22 cm 1 27bL L/mv/movetowxpyr2-1gi gs py-2 pxrOstpyLaser145 122 dpchemdict0-1 arcSA1CBeq{dpneneg acst}{Asc 110.41dvr}ifOA}{1 ix gr llt{ dp -1 sa}b/PT{8pp roaRradCambridgeL/ix/index1L/l/lineto bW1 sm smrodef}bind 2-1gr}b/In{pxs{nHp -8 sc-2dvb2at2.25 rpypxscL/ie/ifelsesc2.2pxacx1803058 0e0000 at leq{gs0tr emv-1x}ifpyaBdgw324.6r n st}b/OrA{py0pxexp2897 m1py-14015cpDLB 2.250 acrDA}{cw0cpl w acscegr}b/OB{/bSxlCAppexec ac aL -1ChemDrawgr gsmvsg0.6 eym1.502pxDA}{dLrLB0alm5x}if nplxrlineto cmpfill}b/SA{aF39cp0st}{1.0scac39 RA}{6-9.6scn1.2l0st}b/HA{lWrot2g0bsne{bW02gswF0.66 rOawybsgr grmv270dpDA}{270sc0180 1 gsdvL/n SA pApogx0wFmpgr n/ex201120b121.6m180120OBelpp16np lpoac px3xlWgilecpst0glt{ppxpx-1 0lp xpscal5 l bW mvdpxlp7arcn0st}{0ateq{DD}{DS}ieScientificSPbegin0OA}{1sc}b/Ov{OrA 27Smsetdash}d/cRx12ap ppp2l lt{1dv12neg4081dp8xdp8DA}{cw OA}{1dvrpdv/bdn/dybsdv0lymsmend1.6dv/bdpxwbe4rada/px-1LB2 0 2fillr2sm-1141-1o116.8aL-1scro00ppyst}{Ascneg}if/px-1cXfillwx p lsc1.5dup cp0lW-125.81lW3exec}b/C xl0cmmdvpypLBlclip}b/Ct{bsgrl}fortr/dysm-1-1negpgs2begin16grrO slmtcmSA st4gr4npSA2lWZLB-2o/cX0 L/tr/transform2cp pxixpxnpyxrO0CAa}ie}b/BW{wDComputing,cm pclippathSApynegpxdvscS}if/lppp}ifels L/gr/grestorea}{ex3.37570x1.2bWesm5m}b/dA{[3390sgpxssetgraycm2lp0sor{4rOst}]eosm}b/CB{np[{[{CSx userdict/chemdict1SAbddict0putpy180epylcm4smrOSApx-2np[{pye16ediv1negg/bboendp0.5gcv pprOgr}ies %wdp2mvosmscOA}{1counttomark{bsdv}{bd}ierarcst}{0225.81mv0-1pyWIbsst}{pxZLBxweq{dL}if gr}b/wDw o 202 1 s{dp -9.6 acro ix dv m l OB/bL rad a}ie}b/WW{gs S]}b/dL{dA g 2 L/gs/gsave 0 DA}{dL 180 x dxg scsqrt py 2.2 gr o ne{bW AA}{1DT}]o 4 DA}{180 cm p dp 0 2typetype fill L/mt/matrix 5 p 1 lp sc 0 1 sg l m a/py sg fill 1 p m/aL o nH o wb lp + Base2 currentpoint + Acid1 currentpoint currentpoint 192837465 H3PO4 + Base1 ...
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