Anatomy.ppt - AS103 Principles of Animal Science T. Mutibvu...

This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 90 pages.

AS103Principles of Animal ScienceT. Mutibvu
2Introduction to AnatomyAnatomyThe science dealing with form and structure of allorganisms:Microscopic Anatomy:study of the form andstructure of those tissues and cells which can be seenwith the aid of a microscopeGross (macroscopic) anatomy:study of the formand relations (relative positions) of the structures of thebody which can be seen with the unaided eye.
Descriptive Terms useful in AnatomyThe following terms are used as a frame ofreference in locating any given part of an animalbody;Cranial/anterior; directional terms referring 2 towardsthe headCaudal and posterior: towards the tailMedian plane:imaginary plane (craniocaudal)that divides the body into two equal left and righthalves
4Descriptive Terms useful in AnatomySagittal plane: any plane that’s parallel to the medialplane. N.B: Median plane is sometimes called the mid-sagittal planeTransverse plane: plane at right angles to the medianplane. It divides the body into the cranial and caudalsegments. This is the plane that defines the cross-section of the bodyFrontal plane: the plane that is at right angles to boththe median and transverse plane and it divides the bodyinto upper (dorsal) and lower (ventral)
5Directional terms and planes of the animal body
Descriptive Terms useful in AnatomyMedial: close or towards median planeLateral: antonym/opposite of median planeDorsal: towards or beyond the backboneVentral: away from or below the backboneDeep/internal: closeness to centre of gravity orcentre of an extremitySuperficial or external: proximity to the skin orsurface of an extremityProximal: relatively closer to a given part usuallythe vertebral column or centre of gravityDistal: relatively further from the vertebralcolumn
7Directional terms and planes of the animal body
8
9Common typesCommon typesName of studyChief structureSkeletalArticularMuscularDigestiveRespiratoryUrinaryReproductiveEndocrineNervousCirculatoryIntergumentarySensoryOsteologyArthrologyMyologySplanchnologyEndocrinologyNeurologyAngiologyDermatologyEsthesiologyBonesJointsMusclesIntestines, stomachLungsBlood, kidneysOvaries, testesDuctless glandsBrain, nervesHeart and vesselsSkinEyes and ear
10Skeletal SystemsOsteology: the study of bones that collectively make up the skeletonN.B:1. Bones are living structures2. Have blood vessels3. Have lymphatic vessels4. Have nerves5. Subject to diseases6. Can repair themselves7. Adjust to changes in stressComposition of bones1/3 of the weight = O.M (fibrous and cells)This O.M mainly consists of collagen and polysaccharide calledGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which contain chondroitin sulphateCarbon sulphate gives toughness and resilience to bones2/3 weight/weight: inorganic, (Ca + P + Salts) deposited within O.MGives hardness and rigidity (make them resist passage of x-rays )
11Classification of BonesLongShortFlatSesamoidPneumaticIrregular bonesLong Bones

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 90 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture