04 - INGRATE-ungrateful people treat benefactor as enemy To...

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INGRATE —ungrateful people, treat benefactor as enemy. To be ungrateful to parents is one of the worst things to be called to Chinese. Chung-shan Wolf Wolf—ingrate. This story is a FABLE—points out a moral (moral lesson to be learnt), and the circumstances of characters are purely imaginary. Not based on history or fact at all. Fable is a story in which characters are objects of nature who think and speak like humans. Moral: ingrate like Chung-shan don’t deserve to live because he’s greedy to a point that he threatens the life of benefactor. Master Tung-kuo is described as a Mohist [refers to a founder of a philosophical movement in the War and States period of China: Mo Ti or Mo Tzu. Movement didn’t survive after War and States period. He taught that the only salvation for world was if people could practice universal love. Heaven desires and requires universal love. Love and embrace everyone equally—love others’ parents like your own, etc. different from Confucian: different levels of love, more love for closer people. If universal love can’t be achieved, people should learn to defend themselves, so there won’t be wars. Hence people became experts in defense. ] Author Ma Chung-hsi (assumed to be a Confucian), named Tung-kuo a Mohist. He was described as timid and naïve. However, he was only practicing his universal love for even the wolf. He didn’t kill him when he caught the wolf. Confucius: how should we repay injustice? We should respond with justice. To author, justice means extreme punishment.
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