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Lecture34-2007 - Fatty Acids Long alkyl chains with...

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1 Fatty Acid Breakdown I Lecture 34 Chapter 19-1 and 2 Office hours today: 11 am to noon Fatty Acids: Long alkyl chains with carboxylic acid at one end. General forumula: CH 3 -(CH 2 ) n -COO - (number from carboxylate) Stearic acid: saturated C18 18:0 Oleic acid: unsaturated C18 18:1 ! 9 (all natural double bonds are cis!) Linoleic acid: C18, two unsaturations 18:2 ! 9 ! 12 Linolenic acid: C18, three unsaturations 18:3 ! 9 ! 12 ! 15 " # $ % Alternative numbering Cis and Trans Fatty Acids
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2 Functions of Fatty Acids in Mammals Membrane components: – Building blocks for phospholipids, glycolipids. Post-translational modification of proteins. Causes protein to associate with membranes. Serve as hormones and second messengers Prostaglandins are derived from Arachidonic acid Fuel molecules Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerol (trigyceride): Triglycerides are stored in specialized cells: Adipocytes Fat droplet
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3 Importance of fat in metabolism: Highly reduced energy source. More kJ/mole than any other biomolecule. Virtually anhydrous, so takes up very little space (relative to carbohydrates or proteins). Energy stores in average adult: Fat: 420,000 kJ Protein: 100,000 kJ Glycogen: 2,500 kJ Free glucose: 170 kJ Glycogen/glucose: sufficient for ~24 hours. Fat: sufficient for several weeks. Problems with fat: Low solubility in water. Creates transport problems.
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