Midterm 2221B Lecture Review (Ch. 1,3, 4) Biopsychology as a neuroscience But what is biopsychology, anyways? Dr. Oliver Saacs – famous scientist – wrote the man who mistook his wife for a hat He meets Jimmie G – the case of Jimmie G, the man frozen in time Was in the navy at 18 When talking about the navy believes that it is the present tense Gave mirror and did not know who was in the reflection Could not remember anything new Unable to form lasting memories Chronic alcohol ingestion Neurons and the Human Brain The Human Brain An amazingly intricate network of neurons About 3 pounds Neurons Cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals Specialized cells that are in the brain that make connections with one another
Neuroscience The scientific study of the nervous system May prove to be the brains ultimate challenge: does the brain have the capacity to understand something as complex as itself? Biopsych is one aspect of neuroscience Defining Biopsychology The scientific study of the biology of behavior Four Major themes of this book Thinking creatively about biopsychology Clinical implications The evolutionary perspective Neuroplasticity Biopsychology is empirical (have to see it to believe it) Knowledge acquired through observation Biopsychologists must be skeptical and think critically What is the evidence? How was it collect? Psych conclusions based on research not tradition or common sense
Biological Perspective: The beginning Mind-body dualism Mind: spiritual entity Not subject to physical laws Rene Descartes Rejected by most neuroscientists Monism Mental events are a product of physical events Can be studies E.g chemical reaction in the brain produce emotion, decisions, etc. Beginning of Brain-Behaviour connection In support of monism Luigi Galvani Severed leg of frog- moved when electrical current was passed through it i.e discovered electrical nature of nerve conduction understand physiological properties of the brain Localization Issue Idea that specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions Phineas Gage – accident, pole through skull, cognitive abilities remained in tact but his personality changed dramatically – shows that one area might be involved for a particular function
Broca’s Area – store patients couldn’t produce language – damage to particular area – responsible for speech production – Broca’s Area Unfortunately this idea also lead way for phrenology – idea that localization is taken too far – that personality characteristics can be assessed based on the bumps on your head History of Biopsychology The organization of behavior Donald O Hebb (1949) – when biopsychology began – canadian psychologist Key factor in biopsychology’s dev’t into a major neuroscientific discipline Proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity Helped discredit notion that psychological functions are too complex to be derived from physiological activities
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- Summer '14