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Ashley MatherneStephensUnit 13 VocabJanuary 30, 2010Sand Creek Massacre: John Chivington in 1864 led a force of about 700 men into Fort Lyon, Colorado and gave the garrison notice of his plans for an attack on the Indian encampment. Although he was informed that Black Kettlehas already surrendered, Chivington pressed on with what he considered the perfect opportunity to further the cause for Indian extinction. In response, Indians of the southern and northern plains stiffened in their resolve to resist white encroachment. An avenging wildfire swept the landand peace returned only after a quarter of a century. Wovoka, a member of the Paiutetribe, was born in about 1856. He was the son of Tavibo, a medicine man and mystic. After the death of his father Wovoka was employed by the farmer, David Wilson. Later he took the name Jack Wilson. In 1887, Wovoka, had a vision where he met God. Wovoka was told that he must teach his people that they must love each other, live in peace with the white people, and must work hard and not lie or steal. Wovoka was given a dance by God that had to be performed for five consecutive days. Wovoka performed what became known as the Ghost Dance. This involved the men holding hands in a circle and shuffling slowly to the left while singing special songs about how Native American life would be restored to its former order and balance. Wovoka claimed that performing this dance would result in the return of the buffalo. News about Wovoka's teachings spread to other Native American tribes. The most enthusiastic supporters of this new cult was the Sioux. This alarmed white settlers in the area who thought it was a preparation for further hostilities. They called for help and by 1890 nearly 3,000 members of the 7th Cavalryarrived to protect the settlers. This resulted in the Wounded Knee Massacreand this brought an end to the Ghost Dance cult.
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Reconstruction, Native Americans in the United States, Lakota people, Cheyenne, Sioux, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull