ESS3290- HOMEWORK CHAPTER 3 & 4-FAWAD KHAN- 259791.docx -...

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Name: Fawad KhanMadonna Id: 259791Course Details: ESS_3290 Principles of AstronomySubject: Chapter 3 and 4 homeworkDate of Submission: 30-05-2021Chapter No. 3 - The Science of AstronomyAnswer 1. Scientific thinking comes naturally to all of us since it involves careful observationand trial and error, which we all do in our daily lives. Modern science varies from normalthinking in that scientists are taught to organize their thoughts in such a way that it is simpler todiscuss their findings.Answer 2. Astronomy was studied by ancient humans in order to keep track of time and seasons,which was necessary for farming.Massive obelisks were most likely used as clocks by Egyptians and Stonehenge aided ancienttribes in determining the seasons.Aztecs - The Aztecs used to use the Temple Mayor to keep track of the seasons. While sundaggers were used by the Anasazi to mark the location of the sun on important events like thesummer and winter solstices.
And with the help of the 18-year Saros cycle, Babylonians were able to predict eclipses.Answer 3. The day is defined by the rotation of the earth on its axis on a daily basis. The seven"planets" of ancient times were given names for the week. The Moon's cycle of phasesdetermines the duration of a month. Furthermore, the year is dependent on the seasonal cycle.Answer 4.The lunar calendar has 29 days, whereas others have 30, therefore the averagecorresponds to the 29-day lunar cycle. A lunar calendar with 12 months has just 354 or 355 days,or around 11 days less than a calendar based on the Sun.It is synchronized with the solar calendar by exploiting an unusual coincidence: 19 years on thesolar calendar equals almost exactly 235 months on the lunar calendar. As a result, the moonphases repeat every 19 years on the same dates (a pattern known as the Metonic cycle).Answer 5. A scientific model is a conceptual framework that is used to explain and predictobserved events. Model of the Earth's Climate, for example.
The Ptolemiac model explained retrograde motion by having planets move on smaller circlesattached to the larger circles on which they circled Earth.Answer 7. Revolution of Copernicus The paradigm shift brought about by Copernicus' discoverythat Earth is a planet orbiting the Sun rather than the universe's center.For a long time, mankind believed that the earth was the center of the universe and that allobjects in the sky rotated around us. Copernicus developed a set of basic geometric relationshipsthat allowed him to calculate each planet's orbital period and relative distance from the Sun in

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