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hunter5 - 5‘53 l rec it"UV" ‘3 fiat-m Civic...

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Unformatted text preview: 5‘53 l rec. it "UV" ‘3) fiat-m Civic Biology1 George William Hunter __— The Doctrine of Evolution.-0’Je have now learned that animal forms may be arranged so as to begin with very simple one—celled forms and culminate with ,a group which contains man himself. This arrangement is called the evolutionary series. Evolution means Chan; , and these groups are believed by scientists to represent stages in complexity of development of life on the earth. Geology teaches that millions of years ago, life upon the earth was very simple, and that gradually more and more complex forms of life appeared, as the rocks formed latest in time show the most highly developed forms of animal life. The great English scientist, Charles Darwin, from this and other evidence, ex~ plained the theory of evolution. This is the belief that simple forms oflife 0n the earth slowly and gradually gave» rise to those more complex and that thus ultimately the most complex: forms came into existence. The Nmnber offinimal Species-«Over 500,000 species of animals are known to exist today, as the following table shows. Protozoa .............. 8,000 'Arachuids ............. l6,000 Sponges ............... 2,500 _ Crustaceans ............ 'l6,000 Coelenterates ........... 4,500 Mollnsks . . ., ........... (ii,000 Echinoderms ........... 4,000 Fishes ................ l3,000 flatworms . ., ........... ‘ 5,000 Amphibians ............ 1,400 Roundworms . . . -, ....... 1,500 Reptiles ................ 3,500 Annelids .............. 4,000 Birds ................. 13,000 insects ................ 360,000 Mammals ............. Jilly Myriapods ------------- 2.000 Total ............... 518,900 1 From George William Hunter, Civic Biology (Cincinaui: American Book Company. 1914). Y? Science on Trial 277 cave. The beginnings of civilization were long ago, but even to-day the earth is not entirely civilized. I The Rates of MadrmAt the present time there exist upon the earth five races or varieties ofman, each very diflbtent from the other in instincts, social customs, and, to an extent, in structure. These are the Ethiopian or negro type, originating in Africa; the Malay or brown race, from the islands ofthe Pacific; the American Indian; the Mongolian or yellow race, including the natives of China, japan, and the Eskimos; and finally, the highest type ofall, the Caucasians, represented by the civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America. Some Domesticated Animals—Our domesticated dogs are descended from a number of wolfiike forms in various parts of the world. All the present races of cats, on the other hand, seem to be traced back to Egypt. Modern horses are first noted in Europe and» Asia, but far older forms flourished on the earth in former geologic periods. it is interesting to note that America was the original home of the horse, although at the time ofthe earliest explorers the horse was unknown here, the wild horse of the Western plains having arisen from horses introduced by the Spaniards. Long ages ago, the first ancestors of the horse were probably little animals about the size of a fox. The earliest horse we have knowledge ofhad four toes on the fore and three toes on the hind foot. Thousands of years later we find a larger horse, the size of a sheep, with a three~toed foot. By gradual changes, caused by the tendency of the animals to vary and by the action ofthe surroundings upon the animal in preserving these variations, there was eventually produced our present horse, an animal with legs adapted for rapid locomotion, with Feet particularly fitted for the life in open fields, and with teeth which serve well to seize and grind herbage. Knowledge of this sort was also used by Darwin to Show that constant changes in the form of animals have been taking place since life began on the earth __ The horse, which for some reason disappeared in this country, continued to exist in Europe, and man, emerging from his early savage condition, began to make use of the animal. We know the horse was domesticated in early Biblical times, and that he soon became one of man’s most valued servants. In more recent times, man has begun to change the horse by breeding for certain desired characteristics. in this manner have been established and improved the various ' types of horses familiar to us as draft horses, coach horses, hackneys, and the trotters. ‘ 7 it is needless to say that all the various domesticated animals have been tremen— dously changed in a similar manner since civilized man has come to live on the earth. When we realize the very great amount of money invested in domesticated animals; that there are over 60,000,000 each of sheep, cattle, and swine and over 20,000,000 horses owned in this country, then we may see how very impor— tant a part the domestic animals play in our lives. Improvement ofMan.—lf the stock of domesticated animals can be improved, U‘ l7/ 278 , Chapter 9 it is not unfair to ask if the health and vigor of the future generations of men and women on the earth might not be improved by applying to them the laws of selection. This improvement of the future race has a number of factors in which we as individuals may play a part. These are personal hygiene, selection ofhealthy mates, and the betterment of the environment. Personal Hygiener—hi the first place, good health is the one greatest asset in life. We may be born with a poor bodily machine, but if we learn to recognize its defects and care for it properly, we may make it do its required workeffectively. lf certain muscles are poorly developed, then by proper exercise we may make them stronger. if our eyes have some defect, we can have it remedied by wearing glasses. if certain drugs or alcohol lower the efficiency of the machine, we can avoid their use. With proper care a poorly developed body may be improved and do effective work. Eugenics—When people marry there are certain things that the individual as well as the race should demand. The most important of these is freedom from germ diseases which mi ght be handed down to the offspring. Tuberculosis, syphilis, that dread disease which cripples and kills hundreds of thousands of innocent children, epilepsy, and feebleflmindedncss are handicaps which it is not only unfair but criminal to hand down to posterity. The science of being well born is called eugenics. The ]ulees.-Studies have been made on a number of different families in this country, in which mental and moral defects were present in one or both of the original parents. The “Jukes” family is a notorious example. The first mother is known as “Margaret, the mother ofcriminals.” In seventy—five years the progeny of the original generation has cost the state of New York over a million and a quarter of dollars, besides giving over to the care of prisons and asylums considerably over a hundred feeble—minded, alcoholic, immoral, or crimi- nal persons. Another case recently studied is the “Kallikak” family. This family has been traced back to the War ofthe Revolution, when a young soldier named Martin Kallikak seduced a feeble-minded girl. She had a feeble—minded son from whom there have been to the present time 480 descendants. Of these 33 were sexually immoral, 24 confirmed drunkards, 3 epileptics, and 143 feeble— mindcd. The man who started this terrible line ofimmorality and feeble—minded— ness later married a normal Quaker girl. From this couple a line of496 descendants have come, with no cases of feebleunindedness. The evidence and the moral speak for themselves! Parasitism and its Cost ofSocietyrwl‘lundreds offamilies such as those described above exist to—day, spreading disease, immorality, and crime to all parts of this country. The cost to society of such families is very severe. just as certain animals or plants become parasitic on other plants or animals, these families have become parasitic on society. They not only dobarm to others by corrupting, stealing, or spreading disease, but they are actually protected and cared for by is“? Science: on Trial the state out of public money. Largely for them the poorhouse and the asylum exist. They take from society, but they give nothing in return. They are true parasttes. The Remedy.~—lf such people were lower animals, we would probably kill them off to prevent them from spreading. Humanity will not allow this, but we do have the remedy of separating the sexes in asylums or other places and in various ways preventing intermarriage and the possibilities of perpetuating t such a low and degenerate race. Remedies. ofthis sort have been tried successfully _ in Europe and are now meeting with success in this country; Bleed T'lls.-ELigenics Show us, on the other hand, in a study of the families in which are brilliant men and women, the fact that the descendants have received thegaod inheritance From their ancestors. The following, taken from Davenport’s leredi'ty in Relation to Eugenics, illustrates how one family has been famous in American History. .. ' ' In 1667 Elizabeth Tuttle, “of strong will, and of extreme intellectual vigor, married Richard Edwards of Hartford, Conn, 21 man of high repute and great erudition. From their One son descended another sortJonatltan‘Edwards, a noted divine, and president of Princeton College. Ofthe descendants ofjonathan Ed— wards much has been written; a brief catalogue must sufficezjonathan Edwards, in, president of Union College; Timothy Dwight, president of Yale; Sereno Edwards Dwight, president of Hamilton College; Theodore Dwight Woolsey, For twenty~five years president of Yale College; Sarah, wife of Tapping Reeve, founder oFLitchfield Law School, herselfno mean lawyer; Daniel Tyler, a general in the Civil War and Founder ofthe iron industries of North Alabama; Timothy Dwight, second, president of Yale University from 1886 to 1898; Theodore William Dwight, founder and for thirty~three years warden of Columbia Law School; Henrietta Frances, wife of Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin, who, burning the midnight oil by the side of her ingenious husband, helped him to his enduring fame; Merrill Edwards Gates, president of Amherst College; Catherine Maria Sedgwick of graceful pen; Charles Sedgwick Minot, authority on biology and embryology in the Harvard Medical School; Edith Kermit Carow, wife of Theodore Roosevelt; and Winston Churchill, the author of Canister: and other well~l<nowu novels.” Of the daughters of Elizabeth Tuttie distinguished descendants also came. Robert Treat l’aine, signer of the DeclaratiOn oflndependence; Chiefjustice of the United States Morrison R. Waite; Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, presidents of the United States. These and many other prominent men and women can trace the characters which enabled them to occupy the positions of culture and learning they held back to BliZabeth Tuttle. Entire"itswliuthenics, the betterment ofthe environment, is anotherimportant factor in the production ofa stronger race. The strongest physical characteristics may be ruined ifthe surroundings are unwholesome and unsanitary. The slums 2'79 Catherine Maria Setlgwick of graceful pen; Charles Sedgwick Minot, authority on biology and embryology in the Harvard Medical School; Edith Kermit Carow, wife of Theodore Roosevelt; and Winston Churchill, the author of Coniston and other well—known novels." Of the daughters of Elizabeth Tuttlc distinguished descendants also came. Robert Treat Paine, signer of the Declaration oflndependence; Chiefjustice of the Unitetl States Morrison R. Waite; Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, presidents of the United States. These and many other prominent men and women can trace the characters which enabled them to occupy the positions of culture and learning they held back to Elizabeth Turtle. V EHthem‘cs—Euthenics, the betterment ofthe environment, is another important factor in the production ofa stronger race. The strongest physical characteristics may be ruined if the surroundings are unwholesome and unsanitary. The slums . 280 Chapter 9 ofa city are “at once symptom, effect, and cause of evil." A city which allows foul tenements, narrow streets, and crowded slums to exist will spend too much {or police protection, for charity, and for hospitals. Every improvement in surroundings means improvement of the chances of survival of the race. in the spring of. 1913 the health department and street— cleaning department ofthe city of New York cooperated to bring about a ”clean up" of' all filth, dirt. and rubbish from the houses, streets, and vacant lots in that city. During the summer of1913 the health department reported a smaller percentage of deaths of babies than ever before. We must draw our own conclu— sions. Clean streets and houses, clean milk and pure water, sanitary housing, and careful medical inspection all do their part in maintaining a low rate of" illness and death, thus reacting upon the health ofthe citizens OFtlie future. ...
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