NAME ____Mr Answer_____ STUDENT # _________________________ Geology 3950 – Natural Catastrophes; Spring 2008 -- Hour exam #1 (90 points) I.(6 Points)What is the age of the Earth?4.5 b.yHow long ago did the Sun form? Same 4.5 b.yHow old is the oldest fossil evidence for life on Earth? 3-4 b.yHow long ago did hominoid human ancestors evolve? 2-4 m.y.How long is the record of written history? 2-3,000 yearsHow long ago did the dinosaurs become extinct? _____65 m.y___________II. (3 points) What is the source of heat energy inside the Earth that drives plate tectonics? _______decay of radioactive elements___(or radioactivity)______________________ Has this energy source increased or decreased during Earth history? _decreased______ Has the economic impact of natural catastrophes increased through time?_increased______ Why? __because of the growth of human population and investment in infrastructure____ What is the source of energy that drives atmospheric circulation, weather and climate? ___________solar energy___(or the sun)_______________________________ III (3 points) What are three of the limits to our understanding of terrestrial processes and our ability to predict the future of natural events? a. ______chaotic behavior of natural processes_____________________________ b. ______short observational history__________________________________ c.__unknown processes_____________________________ and/or uncertainties in chronologic determinations_____________ IV. (6 points) What are the 3 types of plate boundaries and what type of faults occur at each? a. ___compression/collision/subduction boundaries – thrust faults_________________ b. ___extension/rifting/spreading boundaries – normal faults_________________ c. ___horizontal slip boundaries – strike-slip faults____________________ V. (4 points) Which mover faster, P waves or S waves? __P waves______ Which shake building? ___S waves___ Which do not travel through the Earth’s core? S wavesWhy don’t both travel through the Earth’s core? _because the core is liquidand/or S-wave don’t travel through liquid
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