Exam 3 notes review - Chapter 6 ID Introduction to the Macronutrients Vitamins and Minerals 3:34 PM Macronutrients carbohydrates fats protein provide

Exam 3 notes review - Chapter 6 ID Introduction to the...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 20 pages.

Chapter 6 ID: Introduction to the Macronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals 10/29/12 3:34 PMMacronutrients: carbohydrates, fats, protein, provide energy, required in relatively large amounts Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals, do not supply energy, required in relatively small amounts Micronutrients Assist body functions oEx. energy metabolism, maintaining healthy cells and tissues Absorption may be very low (3-10%) oMacronutrients 85-99% Many micronutrients need to be chemically altered before they are active in the body Vitamins Carbon-containing compounds (organic) 13 are essential Nine are soluble in water Four are soluble in fat Minerals Inorganic Cannot be synthesized by plants or animals Not digested or broken down prior to absorption Two classifications based on need Fat-Soluble Vitamins Characteristics oLarge storage capability oToxicity is possible (too much of a fat-soluble vitamin) oDeficiency symptoms may take many months to develop oMay occur in many chemical forms Water-Soluble Vitamins Characteristics oMinimal storage capability oToxicity is rare oDeficiency symptoms occur quickly oExcreted in urine when tissues are saturated Major & Trace Minerals Characteristics of Major Minerals
Background image
oRequired in amounts of at least 100 mg/day oSeven major minerals Characteristics of Trace Minerals oRequired in amounts of less than 100 mg/day oBody contains less than 5 g oEight trace minerals Absorption of Micronutrients Absorption depends on numerous factors oChemical form §Ex. absorption of heme iron from meats, fish, poultry is about 25%, non-heme iron from plant products is about 3-5% oNumerous factors in foods bind micronutrients and prevent absorption §Ex. phytates & tannins in tea, fiber, metal chelates, etc. oOther nutrients within a meal after absorption §Compete/enhance absorption mechanisms (Vit. C + iron increases absorption) Role in Disease Prevention and Treatment Adequate intake is associated with lower disease risk oVitamins §Vitamin C and cataracts §Vitamin D and colon cancer §Vitamin E and complications of diabetes §Vitamin K and osteoporosis oMinerals §Calcium and hypertension §Chromium and type 2 diabetes in older adults §Magnesium and muscle wasting in older adults §Selenium and certain types of cancer
Background image
Nutrients Involved in Antioxidant Function 10/29/12 3:34 PMAntioxidants: chemicals that protect cells from damage from oxidation Function in different ways: oSome vitamins donate their electrons to free radicals to stabilize them oSome minerals act with complex enzyme systems to destroy free radicals Vitamin E oFat-soluble vitamin oFunctions: §Primary role as an antioxidant úProtects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) úProtects low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) oToxicity: long-term, high doses possible linked to: §Vascular disease (stroke/heart attack) §Diabetes §Heart failure §
Background image
Image of page 4

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 20 pages?

  • Fall '12
  • Staff
  • red blood cells, Vitamin, bone health, fat-soluble vitamin

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes