Carbohydrates notes - I A (alongwithproteins,lipids B , C Composedofcarbon,hydrogen&oxygen D &vegetables E SimpleCarbohydrates(simp

Carbohydrates notes - I A (alongwithproteins,lipids B , C...

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Chapter 4 Carbohydrates I. What Are Carbohydrates? A. One of the three macronutrients (along with proteins, lipids) B. A primary energy source, especially for nerve cells C. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen D. Good sources include fruits & vegetables E. Simple Carbohydrates  (simple sugars) contain 1 or 2 molecules: E.1. Monosaccharides : contain only one molecule E.2. Disaccharides : contain 2 molecules Fructose     :  sweetest natural sugar; found in fruit, high-fructose corn syrup Galactose     :  does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose II. Glucose     :  most abundant sugar molecule in our diet, good energy source A.1. The most naturally abundant carbohydrate A.1.a. Produced by plants through photosynthesis A.2. Found in plants as a component of disaccharides and complex  carbohydrates A.3. Principle form of carbohydrate found in blood A.3.a. “Blood sugar” III. Lactose Intolerance A. Insufficient lactase production causes an inability to digest the  disaccharide lactose found in dairy products B. Symptoms include bloating, intestinal gas, nausea, cramping, diarrhea C. Specifically formulated milk products or oral consumption of the lactase  enzyme can be used to treat lactose intolerance IV. Alternative Sweeteners A. Nutritive Sweeteners A.1. Sugar, honey, syrups, brown sugar A.2. Sugar alcohols (used in gum) A.3. About 2-3 kcal/gram due to incomplete digestion B. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (Sweet N Low, Splenda) B.1. Developed through food technology B.2. Determined to be safe B.2.a. Acceptable daily intake rates V. What are Carbohydrates? A. Complex Carbohydrates A.1. Long chains of glucose molecules A.2. Hundreds of thousands of molecules long A.3. Also called  polysaccharides A.4. Starch, glycogen, most fibers A.4.a. Starch A.4.a.i. Plants store glucose as polysaccharides in the form of starch A.4.a.ii. Our cells cannot use complex starch molecules We digest (break down) starch to glucose
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A.4.a.iii. Grains, legumes (beans, peas), & tubers (potatoes) are good  sources of dietary starch A.4.b.
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  • Fall '12
  • Staff
  • Glucose, blood glucose, Carbohydrate

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