army revolt $ money diverted from army 1870's merchants wanted to invest in , not West merchants do details gov't control general plan merchant autonomy decreased Guandu Shangban started government-supervised merchant undertaking competition w/ West v important building of wealth v important army green standard be reduced build wealth, especially shipping building in iron works can't be dependent on imports but should keep making more expensive than importing Self-Strengthening study abroad Yongwing (?) after 1872, physiology, etc. history, poli sci, econ 8 year college Manchu students from 8 banners expanded training in Western languages for foreign relations W.A.P. Martin Grand Counsellor and Minister of War assassinated Prince Gong Wenxiang supervised school for foreign language self-strengthening activities trade foreign relations yamen - manage Western affairs yangu(o?) 24 secretaries 1st major institutional change in central government since Yongzheng Zongli Yamen
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