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543543543Superposition and Standing WavesCHAPTE R OUTLI N E18.1Superposition andInterference18.2Standing Waves18.3Standing Waves in a StringFixed at Both Ends18.4Resonance18.5Standing Waves in AirColumns18.6Standing Waves in Rods andMembranes18.7Beats: Interference in Time18.8Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns▲Guitarist Carlos Santana takes advantage of standing waves on strings. He changes to ahigher note on the guitar by pushing the strings against the frets on the fingerboard, shorten-ing the lengths of the portions of the strings that vibrate. (Bettmann/Corbis)Chapter 18