22.38: a) , , 20 4 1 r Q πε E a r = < since the charge enclosed is Q . ,0 , = < < E b r a since the – Q on the inner surface of the shell cancels the + Q at the center of the sphere. 20 2 4 1 , r Q πε E b r-= , since the total enclosed charge is –2
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Electric charge, Fundamental physics concepts, charge density, surface charge density