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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 22 Reflection and Refraction of Light Quick Quizzes 1. (a). In part (a), you can see clear reflections of the headlights and the lights on the top of the truck. The reflection is specular. In part (b), although bright areas appear on the roadway in front of the headlights, the reflection is not as clear, and no separate reflection of the lights from the top of the truck is visible. The reflection in part (b) is mostly diffuse. 2. Beams 2 and 4 are reflected; beams 3 and 5 are refracted. 3. (b). When light goes from one material into one having a higher index of refraction, it refracts toward the normal line of the boundary between the two materials. If, as the light travels through the new material, the index of refraction continues to increase, the light ray will refract more and more toward the normal line. 4. (c). Both the wave speed and the wavelength decrease as the index of refraction increases. The frequency is unchanged. 233 234 CHAPTER 22 Answers to Even Numbered Conceptual Questions 2. Ceilings are generally painted a light color so they will reflect more light, making the room brighter. Textured materials are often used on the ceiling to diffuse the reflected light and reduce glare (specular reflections). 4. At the altitude of the plane the surface of Earth does not block off the lower half of the rainbow. Thus, the full circle can be seen. You can see such a rainbow by climbing on a stepladder above a garden sprinkler in the middle of a sunny day. 6. The spectrum of the light sent back to you from a drop at the top of the rainbow arrives such that the red light (deviated by an angle of 42) strikes the eye while the violet light (deviated by 40) passes over your head. Thus, the top of the rainbow looks red. At the bottom of the bow, violet light arrives at your eye and red light is deviated toward the ground. Thus, the bottom part of the bow appears violet. 8. A mirage occurs when light changes direction as it moves between batches of air having different indices of refraction. The different indices of refraction occur because the air has different densities at different temperatures. Two images are seen; One from a direct path from the object to you, and the second arriving by rays originally heading toward Earth but refracted to your eye. On a hot day, the Sun makes the surface of blacktop hot, so the air is hot directly above it, becoming cooler as one moves higher into the sky. The water we see far in front of us is an image of the blue sky. Adding to the effect is the fact that the image shimmers as the air changes in temperature, giving the appearance of moving water. 10. The upright image of the hill is formed by light that has followed a direct path from the hill to the eye of the observer. The second image is a result of refraction in the atmosphere....
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