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Female & Male reproductive tracts- handout - Rat...

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Rat dissection - Neck region o Esophagus Muscular tube which brings food from oral cavity into stomach o Trachea Main pulmonary airway which allows air to go into lungs It bifurcates into the left and right mainstem bronchi As bronchi bifurcate into bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs they decrease in diameter. o Thyroid gland Located in the anterior neck, lying on the trachea Produces tetraiodothyronine/thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and Calcitonin Essential for normal development, growth and metabolism o Parathyroid gland Produces parathyroid hormone that promotes mobilization of calcium from bone - Thorax region o Heart Pumps blood throughout the body Left heart (main pump): pumps oxygenated blood to whole body Right heart (pump for pulmonary circulation): pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs Systemic circulation : involves oxygenated blood leaving the left heart to “feed” cells throughout the body, and deoxygenated blood being collected back into the left heart Pulmonary circulation : involves deoxygenated blood being pumped out into the lungs from the right heart, where it becomes oxygenated, and then returns to the left heart o Pericardium Membrane that involves the heart o Diaphragm Muscle that separates and seal thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity It has important function in expanding thoracic cavity to allow lung expansion during breathing o Aorta Main artery in the body Blood vessel used to deliver oxygenated blood from left heart to the whole body o Lungs Exchange O 2 and CO 2 between the air and blood Warm, filter and moisturize air before it gets to alveoli Blood reservoir for the left heart Filter small emboli from blood Removal of some agents from the circulation - Abdominal region 1
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o Stomach o Located on the left side of the body, underneath the liver Secretory functions: secreted substances continue digestion of food initiated in the mouth; Protect stomach from injury Motor functions: mix with gastric secretions, decrease particle size, and move partially digested material into duodenum Humoral functions: secrete gastrin and somatostatin which primarily regulate gastric secretion o Liver Strategically located in circulatory system to receive blood drained from stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas and spleen and handling foodstuffs Metabolizes, detoxifies and inactivate endogenous compounds (hormones) and exogenous substances (toxins, drugs) Filters blood removing bacteria, endotoxins, parasites, etc Converts hormones and vitamins in more active forms Produces bile which helps with digestion and absorption of lipids, and also eliminates waste products from body Stores carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and some lipids Synthesizes albumin, glucose, cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids o Small intestines Important for digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients
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