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**Unformatted text preview: ** r 2sin dr d d 22.59: a) g = g dA = -Gm = -4Gm. r2 b)For any closed surface, mass OUTSIDE the surface contributes zero to the flux passing through the surface. Thus the formula above holds for any situation where m is the mass enclosed by the Gaussian surface. That is: g = g dA = - 4GM encl. ...

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