Module 7: Categorization & Concepts Categorization Allows us to deal with our surroundings quickly and effectively Without the cognitive ability to categorize every sensory experience would be unique-therefore would have to make unique decisions on routine actions We are constantly categorizing Allows us to treat members of the same category similarly and make predictions regarding new category members –able to react efficiently and appropriately to your current needs Cost to categorization: stereotypes Functions of Categorization 1) Treating non-identical objects in a similar manner (ex: green, red, and yellow apples are all apples) 2) Understanding our surroundings (ex: see 2 people shouting-probably in a fight and they don’t need your opinion) 3) Using current experiences to predict future events ( ex: see a dog in front of you, can predict it would like to be petted) 4) Communication (many words refer to some type of category-ex: furniture, cat, etc; allows for efficient communication) Illusion of the Expert The perception that something is simple because we are good at it (ex: you think tying your shoes is easy, but to a child learning it is not) Categorization seems to be a simple process because humans can perform it with great ease Rules Rules are often insufficient to describe all members of a category Research by Dr. Brooks: difficult to devise simple rules to define abstract categories. For simple categories we are susceptible to the illusion of the expert Humans are unable to articulate rules for various categories We have an internal representation of categories that are independent of the rules we try to define (ex: when we try to define a bachelor we might say they are an
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- Fall '09
- Categorization, Categories, concept learning, Categorization & Concepts