Unit 2 Term List.docx - Necessary and Proper Clause Also...

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Necessary and Proper Clause - Also known as the Elastic Clause, the portion of Article I, section 8, of the Constitution that grants Congress the authority to do whatever is required to execute its enumerated powers. implied powers - General powers suggested by the Constitution rather than specifically enumerated within it. issue network - A complex set of cooperative relationships between groups of citizens affected by a particular set of policies and the bureaucratic agency and congressional committee with jurisdiction over those policies. reapportionment - The process by which seats in the House of Representatives are redistributed to each state to account for nationwide population shifts detected in the decennial census. partisan - Acting in allegiance to a specific political party, cause, or ideology. incumbents - Those who currently hold political office. committee - A group of members of Congress assigned to consider proposed legislation in a given jurisdiction and make recommendations to the full chamber. filibuster - A tactic used to delay or prevent action on a bill by extending the debate on it. cloture - A legislative procedure used in the Senate to bring an end to debate. It requires 60 votes to invoke cloture and end a filibuster. pocket veto - A type of veto that does not require the president’s signature. If the president does not sign a bill into law within ten days of receiving it and Congress is in session, the bill becomes law without the president’s signature. If the president does not sign a bill into law within ten days of receiving it and Congress adjourns, then the bill is effectively vetoed without the president’s signature. whips - Members of Congress tasked with enforcing party discipline and ensuring the presence of other members of the party when votes are taken on the floor of each chamber. unified government - The situation occurring when the same party controls the Senate, the House of Representatives, and the White House. divided government - The situation occurring when one party controls the White House and another party controls the House, the Senate, or both.

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