Poli Sci Supreme Court Cases Review Sheet

Poli Sci Supreme Court Cases Review Sheet - Poli Sci...

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Poli Sci Supreme Court Cases Review Sheet Marbury v. Madison (1803) BACKGROUND : Marbury appointed by Pres John Adams shortly before leaving office. When Thomas Jefferson becomes Pres, Marbury had yet to receive his commission. Jefferson makes Madison Secretary of State and orders him not to give the commissions. RULING : Denied Marbury’s petition claiming the ordinance upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional. Allowed to say this due to elastic clause SIGNIFICANCE : Established the exercise of judicial review Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) BACKGROUND: State of New York tried to grant a monopoly of steamboat operation between New York and New Jersey. Ogden had the monopoly, Gibbons wanted to operate his ferry as well after Ogden barred him from the waters claiming navigation was not a distinct form of commerce. RULING: In Ogden’s favor due to Commerce Clause (interstate commerce). Congress can grant a monopoly, but a state can’t. SIGNIFICANCE: Establishes limited power for Fed Govt to promote and maintain interstate commerce. The whole idea of dual sovereignty comes into play with this case. Barron v. Baltimore (1833) BACKGROUND: Barron owned a profitable wharf in Baltimore harbor. Sued mayor of Baltimore because the city diverted the flow of streams while engaging in construction, which made the water in his wharf too shallow for vessels. RULING: In Baltimore’s favor, 5 th Amendment’s guarantee that government takings of private property or public use apply to the fed govt alone. Maryland has no compensation clause. SIGNIFICANCE: At the time, the BoR did not apply to the states because there was no due process clause of the 14 th Amendment or the doctrine of incorporation. No dual citizenship. Primary citizenship is determined and protected by the states. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1856) BACKGROUND: Scott, a slave, had been brought by his owner to the free state of Illinois. He felt that this should make him a free man. RULING:
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Poli Sci Supreme Court Cases Review Sheet - Poli Sci...

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