Final study sheet - density of gas p x MM(g\/mol R x T Partial Pressures p(x = n(x x[RT\/V p(tot)= p(x p(y p(z or[n(x n(y n(z RT\/V molar fraction(x n(a

# Final study sheet - density of gas p x MM(g/mol R x T...

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density of gas : p x MM(g/mol) / R x T Partial Pressures p(x) = n(x) x [RT/V] p(tot)= p(x) + p(y) + p(z) or [n(x)+n(y)+n(z)]* RT/V molar fraction (x) : n(a) / n(tot) p(x) partial = molar fraction x p(tot) *molar fractions of a component is equivalent to its percent by volume divided by 100, so 78% N 2 = 0.78atm *when finding p,v,n,or t of a component, use p(tot) to find its partial pressure Grahams law of effusion : rate(a)/ rate(b)= root[MM(b)/MM(a)] Energy and specific heat heat gained or lost(q) + final energy (w) gained or lost = E(j) q(j)= C x T(°C), C = j/°C when given mass: q(j)= m(g) * C s (j/g°C) * ΔT(°C) Thermal Equilibrium q(metal)= - q(water) w= - P ΔV, use E - q to find w Reactions at constant volume: ΔErxn= q v ,w = 0 at constant volume * used in bomb calorimetry, where q(cal) depends on T q(cal)= C(cal)ΔT q(cal)= - qrxn and qrxn= qv which = ΔE rxn Heat at constant pressure (enthalpy) H = E + PV Change in enthalpy : ΔH = ΔE + P ΔV * use (q p + w) and w= P ΔV, therefore ΔH = q p - (coffee cup calorimetry) q(soln)= M x C s x ΔT, q rxn = - q(soln) and q rxn /mol = ΔH rxn Relationships involving ΔH rxn 1. If a chemical equation in multiplied by some factor, ΔH rxn is multiplied by that factor
2. If a chemical equation is reversed, ΔH rxn changes signs 3. If a chemical equation can be expressed as the sum of a series of steps, delta ΔH rxn for the overall equation is the sum of the heats of reactions for each step * algebraically solve for any delta ΔH using ΔH 3 = ΔH 1 + ΔH 2 Enthalpies of reaction 1. standard state 2. ΔH°: standard enthalpy change 3. ΔH° f : standard enthalpy of formation *Use standard states and delta ΔH° to find delta ΔH° f - this will occur in a chemical equation where 1 product is formed ΔH° rxn = Δ Ʃ f (products) - Δ Ʃ f (reactants) v(1/s) = c(m/s)/ λ(m) interference : EM waves interact cancel each other out constructive interference : waves align with overlapping crest, resulting in x2 amplitude destructive interference

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