HIS1111 Lect. 03 - HIS 1111 The 20th-century world since 1945 Winter2014 JeanLouisTrudel The Cold War Defining Alignments and Spheres of Influence

HIS1111 Lect. 03 - HIS 1111 The 20th-century world since...

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HIS 1111 The 20 th -century world since 1945 Winter 2014 Jean-Louis Trudel
The Cold War: Defining Alignments and Spheres of Influence Arms control and peace efforts The hydrogen bomb Khrushchev and Eisenhower “Atoms for Peace”, “Open Skies” The IAEA and Sputnik From Sputnik to the “missile gap” The military-industrial complex The Paris Summit and the U-2 incident Spheres of influence Germany Latin America
1946 A 23-kT fission (Pu)  bomb is tested in  the middle of Bikini  Atoll (Operation  Crossroads) By 1953, the U.S.  had about 1,400  nuclear warheads  compared to 120 for  the USSR (Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ds-02955)
A New Team at the Top Before the 1952 election, Dwight D. Eisenhower  and Richard Nixon enjoy a chat, probably in July (NARA 7268197)
American fighting of the Cold War through new Hot War strategies defining the “New Look” strategy (Fall 1953) the deterrent value of thermonuclear weapons the costs and benefits covert operations to defend a way of life allies in the “New Look”  (defending them, relying on them) the post-“New Look” position disarmament and the ending of the Cold War – cause or  consequence for the future of U.S. Cold War policy Soviet disarmament priorities  Soviet acceptance of on-site inspections the Geneva Summit (1955) and the Austrian peace  treaty Malenkov, Khrushchev, and peaceful co-existence
The paradox of a “thaw” and a Cold War intensification after Stalin Improved Soviet-American relations—a “thaw”? the importance of avoiding “Hot War” Molotov’s peace offensive Khrushchev’s reformist ambition and rise to domestic  pre-eminence  Khrushchev’s commitment to peaceful co-existence disarmament proposals and diplomacy Cold War intensification spies, psychological warfare, covert ops, and  propaganda growing Soviet interest in the non-European world the strengthening of the blocs
Early post–Stalin peace efforts and arms control Soviet proposals Malenkov’s 1953 call for an international body to supervise  comprehensive disarmament after the creation of the UN  Disarmament Commission in 1951 no first use agreement, 1954 The American response five point Anglo-American plan for arms reduction Eisenhower’s “Chance for Peace” speech, April 1953 Dulles and European neutral zones Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” speech, December 1953 Genuineness of the Soviet and American plans links to Cold War “liberation”
The Prelude to “Atoms for Peace” Even the death of Stalin in 1953 did not abate the low- level hostilities (Cold War) that opposed the capitalist  and communist worlds

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