political philosophy notes - Political Philosophy o Types of Government Democracy Rule by the people Monarchy rule by a king Oligarchy rule by a group

political philosophy notes - Political Philosophy o Types...

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Political Philosophy o Types of Government Democracy- Rule by the people Monarchy- rule by a king Oligarchy- rule by a group Theocracy- rule by religious leaders Despotism or Dictatorship- rule by someone who seized the government by force o Right or Left Communism o Socialism Welfare Liberalism Classical liberalism Libertarian o What is the role of Government What should the balance be between individual freedom, our individual autonomy and social control? Often we assume we have many rights? What is the basis for freedom? Do all of our rights come from the Government? Individualism vs. Collectivism Should the individual’s interest be put ahead of the group? Or should the group or (society’s) interest come first. Plato’s (Totalitarian) Republic In Plato’s Ideal State each person has an assigned role- given to them by the King. Plato believes that society will benefit because everyone will be working towards the collective good of the whole society. o Natural Rights Theorist Thomas Hobbes John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau o Natural or Human Right Natural rights are rights we have without a government. They are rights that we have in virtue of our humanity. Natural rights are akin to human rights. When you hear people discussing human rights abuses, they mean abuses of certain basic rights. There is no clear philosophical basis for these rights. o Natural vs. Positive Rights Natural rights are basic, negative rights. Rights that we have, and other must simply respect and not violate. Positive Rights come from Government- by legislation. The government passes an act of positive legislation that extends to us a certain right- to vote, drink, or drive… Positive Rights The government makes a law, and a right is created. Dogs have positive rights, trees have positive rights, people have positive rights too. o Thomas Hobbes- Monarchist
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State of Nature Mankind was born into the state of nature. Life in the state of nature is "short nasty and brutish".
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