History 152 Exam 2 Notes - The Industrial Revolution in Britain Introduction Scales of time o One scale of time is events(president winning\/losing

History 152 Exam 2 Notes - The Industrial Revolution in...

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The Industrial Revolution in Britain Introduction Scales of time o One scale of time is events (president winning/losing election) Hours/days/months and maybe years o Another is social conjuncture Emergence of new institution These type of changes can happen over centuries and maybe even millennia o Alvin Toffler, Third Wave o David Christian (quoted by Strayer, p. 826) Find new ways to harness en ergy (fossil fuels) Threshold – new ways of harnessing energy Collective learning, global web of connections o Strayer, page 826/827 o Why has industrialization not become universal, practiced in every country, unlike agriculture Capitalist globalization, property rights, and control of technology Why Europe o The problem of Eurocentrism Form of the broad term, ethnocentrism Europeans are distinct and superior to other societies o Strayer 827-832 and 771-775 Factors that Led to the IR in England Innovations in agriculture, good harvests o Developing better use of fertilizers etc o Small innovations that are key components of this story o More food/better variety/better diet Growing populations (lots of laborers) o Fewer children die o Adults live longer o More laborers Demand for consumer goods by nobility & middle class o Build bigger homes o Furnish big homes o Spending more on home decor etc, which means there’s more of a need for laborers Stable political-legal system (ex, property rights)
o Government couldn’t take property/raise taxes o People can invest in new technologies Capital for investment (partly from New World) o European exploitation for resources in the new world o In the growing economy, it also explains why there’s money available in new technology Natural resources and markets in Britain’s colonies o Need people to sell them to o If you have colonies, it adds to the potential customer base o Colonies can also provide natural resource stuff New banking and investment institutions o Lead Europe and the world in new kinds of banking and investment institutions Stock brokers/stock markets Science, technology & technique Coal (fossil fuels) o Key new fossil fuel that helps jump-start industrial revolution Transportation (canals, RR) o Carrying on backs of horses, wagons and stuff won’t be enough o When in winter, not all canals will freeze over o In the 1820s, 30s, 40s and 50s, they start developing railroads Cheaper than canals – not dependent on water Can operate through winter Textile Manufacturing Growing demand first met by “putting out” system and “cottage” manufacturing o Cottage – modest home that a rural person would live o Most textile manufacturing until the late 1700s would be done in the home Would have a hand-powered spinning wheel or loom in the house o Putting out system—give someone wool to spin, then have it given back (pay them for it) Afford to have large quantities of thread/wool and have someone turn it into something o

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