History 152 Exam 2 Notes - The Industrial Revolution in...

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The Industrial Revolution in BritainIntroductionScales of timeoOne scale of time is events (president winning/losing election)Hours/days/months and maybe yearsoAnother is social conjunctureEmergence of new institutionThese type of changes can happen over centuries andmaybe even millenniaoAlvin Toffler,Third WaveoDavid Christian (quoted by Strayer, p. 826)Find new ways to harness en ergy (fossil fuels)Threshold – new ways of harnessing energyCollective learning, global web of connectionsoStrayer, page 826/827oWhy has industrialization not become universal, practiced inevery country, unlike agricultureCapitalist globalization, property rights, and control oftechnologyWhy EuropeoThe problem of EurocentrismForm of the broad term, ethnocentrismEuropeans are distinct and superior to other societiesoStrayer 827-832 and 771-775Factors that Led to the IR in EnglandInnovations in agriculture, good harvestsoDeveloping better use of fertilizers etcoSmall innovations that are key components of this storyoMore food/better variety/better dietGrowing populations (lots of laborers)oFewer children dieoAdults live longeroMore laborersDemand for consumer goods by nobility & middle classoBuild bigger homesoFurnish big homesoSpending more on home decor etc, which means there’s moreof a need for laborersStable political-legal system (ex, property rights)
oGovernment couldn’t take property/raise taxesoPeople can invest in new technologiesCapital for investment (partly from New World)oEuropean exploitation for resources in the new worldoIn the growing economy, it also explains why there’s moneyavailable in new technologyNatural resources and markets in Britain’s coloniesoNeed people to sell them tooIf you have colonies, it adds to the potential customer baseoColonies can also provide natural resource stuffNew banking and investment institutionsoLead Europe and the world in new kinds of banking andinvestment institutionsStock brokers/stock marketsScience, technology & techniqueCoal (fossil fuels)oKey new fossil fuel that helps jump-start industrial revolutionTransportation (canals, RR)oCarrying on backs of horses, wagons and stuff won’t beenoughoWhen in winter, not all canals will freeze overoIn the 1820s, 30s, 40s and 50s, they start developingrailroadsCheaper than canals – not dependent on waterCan operate through winterTextile ManufacturingGrowing demand first met by “putting out” system and “cottage”manufacturingoCottage – modest home that a rural person would liveoMost textile manufacturing until the late 1700s would be donein the homeWould have a hand-powered spinning wheel or loom inthe houseoPutting out system—give someone wool to spin, then have itgiven back (pay them for it)Afford to have large quantities of thread/wool and havesomeone turn it into somethingo

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