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UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIAMinistry of Health and Social WelfareCMT 04102AnatomyandPhysiology INTA Level 4 Semester 1August 2010
CMT 04102 Anatomy and Physiology INTA Level 4 Semester 1Student ManualiiCopyright © Ministry of Health and Social Welfare – Tanzania 2010
CMT 04102 Anatomy and Physiology INTA Level 4 Semester 1Student ManualiiiTable of ContentsAcknowledgement...................................................................................................ivIntroduction..............................................................................................................ixAbbreviations...........................................................................................................xiModule SessionsSession 1: Introduction to Anatomy..........................................................................1Session 2: Structural Organisation of Organism......................................................11Session 3: Structure and Function of Epithelial Tissues.........................................25Session 4: Structure and Function of Connective Tissues.......................................35Session 5: Structure and Function of Muscle, Nervous and Bone Tissues.............45Session 6: Organs in Different Body Cavities.........................................................57Session 7: Body Fluid and its Constituents.............................................................73Session 8: Lymph and Lymphatic System...............................................................79Session 9: Blood and its Constituents......................................................................89Session 10: Introduction to Cardiovascular System..............................................100Session 11: Physiology of the Heart......................................................................111Session12: Structure of Blood Vessels & their Response to Injury......................119Session13:Blood Circulation to the Head and Neck............................................131Session14:Blood Circulation to the Upper Limb and Thorax.............................145Session 15:Blood Circulation to the Abdomen and Internal Organs...................161Session16:Blood Circulation to the Pelvis and Lower Limb...............................175Session 17: Upper Respiratory Tract.....................................................................193Session 18: Structure and Function of Lower Respiratory Tract..........................207Session 19: Pulmonary Ventilation........................................................................221Session 20: External and Internal Respiration.......................................................231Session 21: Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System.......................................237Session 22: Stomach and Intestines.......................................................................249Session 23: Accessory Organs of Digestive System.............................................263Session 24: Digestive Secretions and Digestion....................................................277Session 25: Carbohydrate Metabolism..................................................................283Session 26: Lipid and Protein Metabolism............................................................291Session 27: Structure and Function of the Kidneys and the Nephron...................299Session 28: Mechanism of Urine Formation.........................................................313
CMT 04102 Anatomy and Physiology INTA Level 4 Semester 1Student ManualivBackground andAcknowledgementIn April 2009, a planning meeting was held at Kibaha which was followed up by a TaskForce Committee meeting in June 2009 at Dodoma and developed a proposal which guidedthe process of the development of standardised Clinical Assistant (CA) and Clinical Officer(CO) training materials which were based on CA/CO curricula. The purpose of this processwas to standardize the entire curriculum with up-to-date content which would then beprovided to all Clinical Assistant and Clinical Officer Training Centres (CATCs/COTCs).The perceived benefit was that, by standardizing the quality of content and integratinginteractive teaching methodologies, students would be able to learn more effectively and thatthe assessment of students’ learning would have more uniformity and validity across allschools.In September 2009, MOHSW embarked on an innovative approach of developing thestandardised training materials through the Writer’s Workshop (WW) model.The modelincluded a series of three-week workshops in which pre-service tutors and content expertsdeveloped training materials, guided by facilitators with expertise in instructional design and

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