Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 typical American diet o too high in...

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Chapter 5 typical American diet o too high in calories, sugar, saturated fats, and sodium o to low in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables on an average day-almost ½ of Americans eat fruit and only ¼ of Americans on average day eat no vegetables you are what you eat. . o good nutrition is clearly linked to over-all health and well-being o a proper diet must supply all the essential nutrients and provide enough substrates for energy production proper nutrition-diet supplies all the essential nutrients that are necessary to carry out normal tissue growth and repair taking in substrates-will give energy/fuel supply o diseases of dietary excess (or diseases of affluence) and imbalance are among the leading causes of death in the U.S. coronary heart disease and something are directly linked to nutrition intake hypertension/high blood pressure-sodium intake-causes to absorb fluid o about 30-50% of all cancers have a direct diet relation o being diabetic, obese, osteoporosis are all directly linked to faulty nutrition essential nutrients o macronutrient-needed in large proportions every day o micronutrient-need small quantities every day o fuel nutrients-where substrates come from-help keep going/break down sugar so can do every day activities/exercise carbohydrates-macronutrient fat-macronutrient protein-macronutrient o regulatory nutrients-help regulate vitamins-micronutrient minerals-micronutrient water-macronutrient
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o nutrient density-measure of the amount of nutrients and calories in a given amount of food junk food-low nutrient density-doesn’t have many essential nutrients carbohydrates o major source of calories in the typical diet/fuel source o contain 4 calories per gram of carbohydrate o major functions: muscular work maintain cell integrity (make sure cells work properly) generate heat regulate fat in body-have to have carbs in order to regulate fat in body protein metabolism o simple carbohydrates-simple sugars monosaccharides-one sugar molecule (glucose (simplest form), fructose, galactose) disaccharides-two sugar molecules (sucrose, lactose, maltose) o complex carbohydrates-polysaccharides-chain of monosaccharides starches-storage form of glucose in plants (seeds, corn, nuts, grains, roots. ..) dextrins-take large starches and breakdown (baking products, cold cereals) glycogen-stored form of glucose in body-stored in liver and muscle tissue (animal polysaccharide) fiber-book page 107-Americans typically don’t get enough of it- indigestible form of complex carbohydrate (plant leaves, roots, seeds, whole
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course KIN 2504 taught by Professor Stone during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 typical American diet o too high in...

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