11-15-06 - Cancer Abnormal uncontrolled cell growth Leading...

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Cancer Abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth. Leading cause of death in U.S. in people under 85 years of age. Overall, #2 cause of death. Largely preventable- 30% of cancer is related to smoking 30%-- poor diet, obesity and 4%-- inactivity Oncologist- doctor who specializes in study and treatment of cancer. Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)- The difference between age at death and a “standard” age of death. A measure of the relative impact that a cause of death (i.e. disease or injury) reduced the length of time that a person would have lived. i.e Using 75 as the “standard” age of death: Death at age 60: YPLL=75-60=15 Tumors—what are they? Mass of tissue with no physiologic function. Damaged/altered DNA- genes that control cell growth or death are altered. Benign- cells look much like the surrounding tissue; do not spread, usually not a big health threat unless it interferes with regular body function. Malignant- cancerous (look very different), capable of spreading, life threatening In situ- self contained malignant tumor, has not spread Metastasis- spread of the malignant tumor. How Cancers are Classified According to types of cells that give rise to them: Carcinoma- from epithelial tissue—tissues that cover body, line internal tubes and cavities and glands. Sarcoma- from connective and fibrous tissues—muscle, bone, cartilage, membranes covering muscles and fat. Lymphoma- of lymphatic system. Leukemia- of blood forming cells (no tumor found) Myeloma- of white blood cells that form antibodies. The Causes of Cancer Cell Basics Chromosomes DNA Gene The Role of DNA DNA mutations- any change in the normal sequencing of nucleotides as a result of heredity, cell division errors, environmental agents (mutagens), and other factors No longer contains proper code for producing proper protein.
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HPS 1040 taught by Professor Surrency during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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11-15-06 - Cancer Abnormal uncontrolled cell growth Leading...

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