Essential Nutrients- substances the body must get from food.
Water, carbs, and alcohol are all macronutrients. True.
Fat, protein, carbs--- macronutrients, energy
Vitamins, Minerals—Micro, non-energy
Energy from Food
Kilocalorie is the measure of energy content in food.
Equal to the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of
1 liter water by 1
Three classes of essential nutrients supply energy
Some systems in the body including blood only use carbohydrates for fuel.
Simple carbohydrates contain one or two sugar units in each molecule.
Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to many other foods.
Include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose.
The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to: provide energy for the body cells.
Complex Carbohydrates consist of chains of many sugar molecules.
Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tuber.
Include starches and most types of dietary fiber.
Unbleached wheat flour is NOT an example of a whole grain.
Whole Grains have more fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds.
Diets with higher glycemic foods are less likely to have diabetes.
Whole Grains take longer to digest.
Make people feel full sooner.
Cause a slower rise in glucose levels.
Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first item on the ingredient list on the label.
Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole-grain corn, brown rice,
popcorn, barley, etc.
Common Sources of Nutritious simple sugars
Fruits, milk, honey
Common Sources of empty, non-nutritive simple sugars.
Soft drinks, fruit punch (kool-aid), sports drinks
Absorption of Carbohydrates
During digestion, CHO broken down into glucose.
Pancreas releases hormone insulin.
Insulin allows glucose to enter cells.
Consumption of carbohydrates causes insulin and glucose levels in the blood to
rise and fall.
Glycemic index is a measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects
blood glucose levels.