History 106 Midterm

History 106 Midterm - History 106 - Midterm Study Guide...

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History 106 -- Midterm Study Guide Neolithic: Yangshao culture (west), Longshan culture (east), 6-3000 BCE Pottery, jades, housing, settlements, burial grounds Xia, 2000-1800 BCE Shang, 1766 – 1045 BCE Bronze, oracle bones, walled capitals, tomb Small cities Weapons made of bronze Oracle bones from King’s perspective Used to divine answers (weather, birth, illness, etc) Also used for record keeping o Writing system existed Discussion of the 5 elements Sense of duality (positive and negative) Theocracy Divination, Shang Di, highest diety Kings communicate to Heaven Kingship and kinship Most elites were warriors State and family ranks were similar o Marriage alliances Rituals and Sacrifice Many of the important gods are past, dead kings (ancestors) o The further back, the more important o Always show respect o Only the Shang royal family could communicate to the ancestors Housing primarily faces South Altar build first then residences Economy and society Capitals, warfare, bronze making Somewhat nomadic Systems of direction, calendar Advanced society Knowledge of time: year and animal zodiacs Writing system is pictographic, complicated = elites only, many illiterate Burial Practices Role of women Not direct rulers but not marginalized Sometimes female ancestors are consulted
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Women could be generals Lady Hao’s tomb Tomb contained many artifacts Other cultures Qiang Zanxingdui Zhou, 1045 – 256 BCE Zhou conquest of Shang King Wen, King Wu, Duke of Zhou Wen is civilization Wu is military king Duke of Zhou is a minister, perfectly loyal o Confucius calls him perfect gentleman Mandate of Heaven, dynastic cycle From Shang Di to Tian Heaven becomes an abstract, general concept Mandate is given to whoever rules regardless of lineage Myths: creators of culture Yao, Shun, Yu System of Statelets 5 soft states, borders are not clear Western Zhou, 1045 – 770 Eastern Zhou, 770 – 256 Spring and Autumn Period, 770 – 480 Blood covenants The Iron Age o Much cheaper than bronze New forms of warfare, infantry, Calvary (300 BCE) Warring States, 480 – 221 New forms of governance Peasant/Soldier subjects Confucius, 551 – 479 BCE Biography o Roaming minister (Shi) o Served as tutor, disciples paid tuition Li: Ritual, the Rites Dao: the way o Keeping with the rituals De: power of virtue, mortality, charisma Ren: humanity, benevolence o Values life
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Xiao: filial piety, the 5 relationships RITUALS!!!! Reciprocity: benevolence for loyalty o King -> Minister, Husband -> wife, Parent -> child, elder -> younger, friend <-> friend The Gentleman Family should be the core Ideal king leads through emulation o Ministers must remonstrate (gently) Mozi, 440 – 400 Comes from a different background than Confucius o
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History 106 Midterm - History 106 - Midterm Study Guide...

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