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Chapter 2 Notes

# Chapter 2 Notes - becomes equal to the instantaneous...

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Displacement is a vector that points from an object's initial position toward its final position. The magnitude of the displacement is the shortest distance between the two positions. The average speed of an object is the distance traveled by the object divided by the time required to cover the distance: Average speed = (Distance)/(Elapsed time). The average velocity of an object is the object's displacement x divided by the elapsed time t : . Average velocity is a vector that has the same direction as the displacement. When the elapsed time t is infinitesimally small, the average velocity becomes equal to the instantaneous velocity v, the velocity at an instant of time. The average acceleration is a vector . It equals the change in the velocity v divided by the elapsed time t , the “change in velocity” being the final minus the initial velocity: . When t is infinitesimally small, the average acceleration
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Unformatted text preview: becomes equal to the instantaneous acceleration a. Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity is changing. When an object moves with a constant acceleration along a straight line, its displacement x - x , final velocity v , initial velocity v , acceleration a , and the elapsed time t are related by the following equations, assuming that x = 0 m at t = 0 s: These equations can be combined algebraically to give two additional equations. See Table 2.1 . The equations in this table are known as the equations of kinematics. In free-fall motion, an object experiences negligible air resistance and a constant acceleration due to gravity. All objects at the same location above the earth have the same acceleration due to gravity. The acceleration due to gravity is directed toward the center of the earth and has a magnitude of approximately 9.80 m/s 2 near the earth's surface....
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