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Chapter 11 Notes - Fluids are materials that can flow The...

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Fluids are materials that can flow. The mass density ρ of any substance is its mass m divided by its volume V : ρ = m / V . In the presence of gravity , the upper layers of a fluid push downward on the layers beneath, with the result that fluid pressure is related to depth. In an incompressible static fluid whose density is ρ , the relation is P 2 = P 1 + ρ gh , where P 1 is the pressure at one level and P 2 is the pressure at a level that is h meters deeper. The gauge pressure is the amount by which a pressure P differs from atmospheric pressure. The absolute pressure is the actual value for P . According to Pascal's principle, any change in the pressure applied to a completely enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid and the enclosing walls. The buoyant force is the net upward force that a fluid applies to any object that is immersed partially or completely in it. Archimedes' principle states that the magnitude of the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid that the immersed object displaces.
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