Fluids
are materials that can flow. The
mass density
ρ
of any substance is its
mass
m
divided by its volume
V
:
ρ
=
m
/
V
.
In the presence of
gravity
, the upper layers of a
fluid
push downward on the layers
beneath, with the result that
fluid pressure is related to depth.
In an incompressible
static fluid whose density is
ρ
, the relation is
P
2
=
P
1
+
ρ
gh
, where
P
1
is the pressure at
one level and
P
2
is the pressure at a level that is
h
meters deeper. The
gauge pressure
is
the amount by which a pressure
P
differs from atmospheric pressure. The
absolute
pressure
is the actual value for
P
.
According to
Pascal's principle,
any change in the
pressure
applied to a completely
enclosed
fluid
is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid and the enclosing
walls.
The
buoyant force
is the net upward
force
that a
fluid
applies to any object that is
immersed partially or completely in it.
Archimedes' principle
states that the magnitude
of the buoyant force equals the
weight
of the fluid that the immersed object displaces.
This is the end of the preview.
Sign up
to
access the rest of the document.
 Spring '08
 Sharp
 Fluid Dynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Buoyancy, Gravity, Mass, Fundamental physics concepts

Click to edit the document details