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LUM Thirty students participated in the experiment. The results from the general owledgg/k'éi ' RAL KNOWLEDGE OF QUIZMASTERS AND CONTESTANTS 2 Method 7
An experiment was performed in class to examine the signiﬁcance of how much assumed)
general knowledge students have. Students were asked to choose a random partner to form groups of two. One student would become the quizmaster and the other student would become the contestant. The student that had the closest birthday to the date that the experiment was \/
performed became the quizmaster. The'sesulting s dent was named the contestant. The quizmaster was asked to design ﬁve questions that were based on general knowledge of the world and that were also not too challenging or based on personal information. The quizmaster asked each of the ﬁve questions )6 & contestant. The contestant was expected to answer each question if possible. The contestant was not penalized for answering the questions incorrectly. 7 Afterwards, all the students came back together and each student was required to complete a survey. The survey asked, “Compared with myself, the other person seems to have (check one):
less general knowledge than I have, slightly less general knowledge than I have, about the same
general knowledge that I have, slightly more general knowledge than I have. and more general knowledge than I have.” The students were also required to answer eight questions unrelated to j,  7 the ex eriment based on a scale of o e (stron Iii: ee) to 5 (strongly disagree) about how well
p (El/EL (pm Khey express themselves or voice such options as. “I always say what’s on my mind.” The results) 7 (\J
{ﬁliw of the survey were kept conﬁdential to create a random display of the data.
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Jena assessment between the quizmasters and contestants are as follows: M = 2.13. Mdn = 2.00, Mo =  5
l l 2/” L L ‘_.._..———''‘— .
2.00. and SD = .92. The distribution is positively sk ed (:13 = 0.996 'th a platykurtic kurtosis M; («L 55 ‘ i _ l’
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(GHQCHU) ‘oq Con'Te'STOLﬂJr ERAL KNOWLEDGE OF QUIZMASTERS AND CONTESTANTS 5 Appendix B: Deﬁnition of statistical terms
When looking at a set of a data, two categories should be considered: the measures of
central tendency and the measures of variability. The measures of central tendency include the
mean, median, and mode. The measures of central tendency are a measure of the middle values
in a set of data. The mean is the average number in a set of data which is calculated by taking
the sum of the data and dividing it by the number of scores in that data set. The mode is the
number that occurs the most frequently and the median is the middle value when the data ° (“W
placed in descending or ascending order. When the data if, My distributed, you should have
a bellshaped curve on a graph and the mean, median, and mode all have the same value. In a
normal distribution the skew is 0. Skewness is the measure of asymmetry or the measure of how
lopsided a distribution is. The skewness of a distribution is either positive or negative depending
on the data. For example, if I were to measure the amount of dessert eaten by 20 random Bates
College students in a week I would ﬁnd the following results: two students eat one dessert, ﬁve
students eat two desserts, seven students eat three desserts, four students eat four desserts, one
student eats ﬁve desserts, and one student eats twenty desserts. The mean of the data is 3.7
which means, on average, Bates students eat 3.7 desserts in one week. From the results it can
easily be seen that the mode is three desserts eaten in one week. The median is also three
desserts, because it is the middle value in the set of data. The data would have been a normal distribution, but one student in the sample eats 20 desserts in one week. This is an extreme value compared to the rest of the data and makes the distribution have a positive skew. \/  yen1.. RAL KNOWLEDGE OF QUIZMASTERS AND CONTESTANTS 6 The measures of variability include the range, average deviation, variance, and standard 7 deviation. The measures of variability determine how far the set of data travels away from the mean. The range measures the distance between the highest and lowest score in your set of data.
. . . . 7
The average dev1ation and the standard deﬂation are a way of measuring the average of the v  difference from the mean. The standard deviation provides a better estimate for inferring the results of the whole population in a set of data. The average deviation and standard deviation 2 1., differ from the variance in that the variance is a measure of the difference between what is l 3 i \W“ expected for a set of data and what actually occurs. The variance and standard deviation are M \ 9 closely related. but the variance is the squared value of the standard deviation. —\ $ \V” Y‘
Taking the same sample of the amount of dessert eaten by 20 Bates students, you can ﬁnd bow/Vb the range by subtracting the lowest value of one dessert from the highest value of 20 desserts with a resulting range of 19. This is the difference between the highest amount of dessert eaten in one week and the lowest amount of dessert eaten in one week. The average deviation is 1.88.
cit/TA U/‘j/ This means that, on average. thedin is/l .88 desserts away from the mean number of dessert eaten by students in one week. The variance is 14.98 which ineans that, on average, the data is 14.98 squared desserts away from the mean. The standard deviation is 3.87 which means that, on average, the data is 3.87 desserts away from the mean. As it was mentioned previously, the average deviation and the stande deviation are closely related Milieu meaning. In this example, the standard deviation is higher than the average deviation, because the standard deviation is more precise in making a generalization about what the data would predict for the \/ amount of dessert eaten in a week by the entire population of Bates College students. The average deviation is not as commonly used when making inferences about data. ...
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 Fall '09

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