Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Strict Liability and Product...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Strict Liability and Product Liability CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Strict Liability Unoor tho doolrIn-o of strict Ilaoltty, tIabIIIIy to trnpoooo for roarsono othor than tauIL Tho origln of tho oon-oopt In an English case is explained in ureter-rt. A. AIHDMALL'I' DMIGIHDUE MTMHES Strict limility is mptied Io- abnotmaly darnerous activities because of hair m risk. Air-normally dangerous actrrtlies irwohe potentially serious harm to persons or property and a high dagres of risk that cannot be completely guarded against by the exercise of reasonable care. B. Uri-III AFFLIGATIDHB DF SHEET Lla'illLlT‘t' Strict liability is imposed on persons who keep dametvous animals For any ham inflicted lay the animals. Strict liability is also a theory aptioapte in product liatuilityI cases. I. Product Llahllty' .I'I. IIEGUEEIIEE 1. Due Gare Hut Ea Exercised Duo taro must no osotoiooo lrt ooalgnlng products. tn solo-wing matorlats. In proouolng and tasting products. and In waning warnings on Ianoia Infonntng uaora oi Hangar: oral-nor: an ordinary potson might not be aoare. The duty of cans errands to inspecting and Iesflrtg products that a mamiastutar buys for use in 1m I'Inal prom. 1. Frisky of Contract Not Required an action based on negigenoe does not require pri'irity olcontracl. B. Hanmssaurflrott lr'thonirauoutontmiaroproaontattontoa uaororoonamnorroatttsm II'ItuntltmayaonroaoabaoIoof liability. A bad ad or label can show intent. loul the injured party must have trained on it. II. Strict Prodtlct Llahlflty Impoaod ainoo tho 1aaoo by courts in many aratoa. alricl product Iablrty duos nor roqu'ro pr'w'rtyof m‘IIratt. or proofof taurt orIt-io bolt orroaoonablo oaro. A. STRICT PRODUCTLIAEIUT‘I' AHDP'UBLIG Pcucr Strict liability is imposed as a mailer oi pubic noisy. Some states l'ln'rt its application to aiualions involving psl'solaal inju-y. B. DAM-r AHNLAILE III STRICT Pnooum LIAILIT'I' MHDHB a l'e'lII.I states limit damages to amounts [or personal injuries—nothing for property damage—and some states Itnil amounts for noneponomic harm. such as pain and suffering. emotional distress. loss of consortium. and disfiguratrtent. Pmit'rye damages may be available in oasis of intentional or reprehenatula contrast. smjsst to the hits althadtls Process standards of the LIE. Conalilulion. c... REQLIHEIEI’ITS FDR EITHET moat-c1 LMBMT'II' FDI'fl IMILE»: cl afllicn in atrial DFDdLlat Iiflaifly againsta manufacturer— - A. Pro-amt must he in a oalafliva Matron-rhea thus manufacturer sells it. - Tho manufacturer mat ho normally ongogod it tho husinoaa olaoll'ng il. s The mducl must be unreasonably dangaous to a tear or consumer became cl its detaches conciticn incl rue-owed in al slates}. * A pla'nlill' mus! inner pinre'ecal ham to gel or pmpedy l:I-y use-oroonsumpdon oflhe product . The defeoliee mean must pursuant; amiss Ine 'I‘IjLe‘y or damage « Theproduotnnistnotnaoebeen subsianllalycnanged frommetirnertwassoldlolneumeoflne anLIiy. 1. Fro-slog a Dereollye con-deem II need not be sno'on why oi' now a pfoduol Moan-e defeoilee. but it musl be sheen In! at he lime of [he 'I‘lee‘y. die mars condition Isuns essenljally me some as it was in lhe hands of the manu- l'aoinre-r or seler. 2. unreasonably Bungalow: Products A produot is reasonably dangerous if— : Ills dangerous beyond the reasonable espeolallons oi'lne ordinary consumer. . A less dangerous altemallye In'as econoinlcally feasIbIe bul me manul‘aoitli'er falled lo produce iL PRODUCT DEFEGTS—REETATEIEH'I' {Tflflfll OF TDRTE The FlestatemenHThIrd] oi' Torts: Producls Llabliity replaces some of Ine nard-to-undersland dsilnotions In: deyeloped 1.Irlluen courls applied dill'erenl “nodes of liabilty to die same delecls. The Fleslielnenl (Third: calenorizes product delecls inlo lhe following Ill-tee types. 1. flanufaofllrilg Delaols A product 'corlains a mmtiecturing deleol when Ihe product deperls fi'om ils blended design eyen lhougl'l al posses care was exercised in [he preps-"Ellen and mol'lioling of the prochol.‘ This Includes producls ital are pnyslcaly Ilawed. damaged. or Incorreoly men-bled. 2. Design caress: a product We defective in design when [he foreseeable risks ol balm. posed by me product could have been deduced oraeoided by the adopnonof 5 reasonable anemones design by the seleror oil'rer dIstrIbutor. or a predecessor In me coinmeiclal chaln of disiribillon. and die omission of Ine arIen'lthIe deslgn renders me producl. not reasonanry sale.‘ a. Ten tor Deelgn Deleon To delermlne wrieII'ler a producl nas a design defect Ina i'oous Is on its somal design and Ine reasonableness oi'lnat deslgn. To succeed on Ibis II'l-eoiy. a piali'itifi‘ has to snow:I lnat more Is a reasonable allemaljire design. a. delendanl Is "file only when Ille harm I.II'as reasonably preventable. b. Factors to Be Considered Faclors lhat a court may consider are lioled in he lent 3. Inadequale Warnings e produol. “Is defeatere became of inadequate inslmooons or warnlngs Isl-Ian lne loreseeme risids of harm posed by Ine pro-duo]. could have been reduced or avoided by the proylslon of reasonanle Instrucllons or leanings by the seller or oin-er dlslrlouloi'. or a predecessor In Ina comn'l-erclal chaln ofdiolrbuljon. and the omission of Ilia inslrucljono or warnings renders I'Ie producl not reasonably safe' Impedant lesions are noted in lhe lend. . There is nodutyto worn abtlLI risks Ihat areohelous or commonly knfl'lb'l‘l. - 'I'hem'sadulylowamofhanndialoan remiIrom foreseeable misuse. “slim-SHARE LII-Elm In some cases. some col-1s have nol required Drool as to which specific deferlmnl manufactured Ihe pedicLIar ptoohcl lhorl injured Ins pia'lififf. l-Iool scurts do ncl apply this theory, however. Whm I is appied. iI is usually in cases involving drugsordiemicak. Wm! maker is difllcit lo idenljl'y. F. DTI-lfl ”HEATERS OF STRICT PRODUCT LMBIIJ'IT The am Iiabllty daclrl-ne has been expanded to Include suppliers afaempanem parts. All sauna amend Ina SM llahllty al‘manul'amJI-era and all-lei sellers to Injured byalandeta. W. Bellman in Product Uahllfl'y one serene-.5 ia mum in mi: hash In: lhe cla'm because the phinliflhaa nDI prmilad la abmenlfi. A. Di E. F. WHO" {IF Risk In some RtEII-EEI. 111?. follcm'i'lg elamems min! be shun-In: [1) [he plainljfl Mnla'ily engaged in theL risk whie realizing Ins mient'nl danger. [2} line plaint'fl‘ knew and appreciated lhie risk crashed by line :Isfscl. and [3i the pls'llfifi’s decision Io unda'take lhue linmm risk was mrsssnnsble. mam-:1 MUSE if a sari? use-d a Pro-dual far ssmstl'ning for which it was not design-es. the DW may nsl be able In: W 'I'I shin! liabiliy (slams swrls hold. haw-raver. Ihst il a misuse is reasonably foreseeable. a seller must lake meaau‘ea Ia guard against ii]. CMAM'I'WI NEGLIGENCE {FALLT} Iulaat note-la consider a plainllfra influence In awn-timing liability. Same caurla 'MI consider only a plaintiffs imnlimal mnducl. Waiver. coma-um Kiln-WI! Dal-HERB ifs plainlifi's 'I'Ijury muted [ram 5 smmmly Imam danger. the deliendml fill not be liable. KWLEDGEIBLE USER ifs Pls'I'IliFf's injury rssuled [ram a danger wnmwnly known In s'lnilsrly silustsd 'I'Ili'il'ldwls imh as sleslris'lal'ls}. Ihe deia'idanl may not be liable forfail'ng to wan-I of it. STATUTES 0F LIIITATIDH All: REFUSE .P- ty'pl'csl stalule sf liniliariisns pl'mlidss lhst er sclisn mus! he hlwght wilh'l'l a specified perisnl of lime sfier the cause of Hahn muss. For indusl isbilihr autism his is typically hrs In fDLI' years sflsr :- plai'ilil‘l' :Ianmara an injury. A alalute afrepaae mayalaa inil [he tine within url-id1 a plai‘rtifi'can file a auil, hul typically a atalule af rep-nae heme ta rm a] an earier dale and ruin far a longer lime than a name al‘ Immune ...
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