Chapter 2 Outline

Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline Cognitive and...

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Chapter 2 Outline: Cognitive and Linguistic Development I. Basic Principles of Human Development A. The sequence of development is somewhat predictable i. characterized by  development milestones : new,  developmentally more  advanced behaviors ii. we see  Universals  in development: similar patterns in how  children change over time despite considerable diversity in  their environment B. Children develop at different rates i. not all children reach developmental milestones at the same  age C. Development is often marked by spurts and plateaus i. children go through periods of relatively rapid growth  (spurts) and slower growth (plateaus) ii. stage theory : development is characterized as progressing  through  a predictable sequence of stages    D. Heredity guides development to some extent i. maturation :  an unfolding of genetically controlled changes  as the child develops a. motor skills (walking, running) develop primarily as a  result of neurological development, increased strength, and  increased muscular control b. children have predisposed temperaments (calm, outgoing,  adventuresome, cautious, etc.) E. Environmental factors also make substantial contributions to development i. any large society encompasses various ‘layers’ of  environment that affect children’s development a. family > neighborhood/community > state/county ii. Culture :  behaviors and belief systems that characterize the  long-standing social group of which the child is a member a. provides an overall framework for child F. Heredity and environment interact in their effects i. inherited predispositions may set a  sensitive period   (critical  period) : a point in development during which a  growing 
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child can be especially influenced by environmental  conditions II. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development A. Basic Assumptions i. Children are active and motivated learners a. they are naturally curious about the world around them –  seek out information ii. Children construct knowledge from their experiences a. they coagulate their views to better their understanding of  how the world works b. Constructivism : construct own beliefs and understandings  based on their own experiences  c. The things children learn and can do are organized as  Schemes : groups of similar actions or thoughts that are  used repeatedly in response to the environment 
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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline Cognitive and...

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