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Chapter 4 Outline

Chapter 4 Outline - Chapter 4 Outline Group Differences I...

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Chapter 4 Outline: Group Differences I. Keeping Group Differences in Perspective A. Group Differences : differences we are likely to see on average among students of different backgrounds, cultures, and genders i. a great deal of individual variability exists within any group ii. a great deal of overlap typically exists between two groups II. Cultural and Ethical Differences A. Culture : the behaviors and belief systems that characterize long-standing social groups i. influence our perspectives and values, skills, and adult roles we aspire to attain B. Ethnic Group : a group of individuals with a common culture and: i. roots that precede the country it resides in ii. members share a sense of interdependence C. Cultures at Home and School i. Cultural Mismatch : students come from backgrounds with different norms from those of the schools ii. Students become more aware of school norms the longer they’re in the school D. Examples of Cultural and Ethnic Diversity i. Language and Dialect - Standard English - Dialect : form of language that includes particular pronunciations and grammar - African American English ( Black English ) ii. Talking Versus Remaining Silent - In some cultures, “silence is golden” iii. Eye Contact - In some cultures, looking an adult in the eye is considered disrespectful iv. Personal Space - “distance between two people” v. Questions - IRE Cycle : A teacher initiates an interaction, a student responds to the question, and the teacher evaluates the response vi. Waiting vs. Interrupting - Wait Time : length of time a teacher pauses after asking a question - Some cultures allow a lengthy pause out of respect vii. Public Vs. Private Performance viii. Views About Teasing - Teasing is a common form of social interaction in some cultures ix. Cooperation vs. Competition - In some cultures, the focus is on the group achievement, or the success of the village/community – Not the individual
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x. Family Relations and Expectations - we must be sensitive to situations in which the
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