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Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Vocabulary 1 Adaptation a trait...

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Chapter 15 Vocabulary   1. Adaptation -  a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and  reproduce compared to individuals without the trait. 2. allele frequency -  for any given gene, the relative proportion of each allele of  that gene in a population  3. Altruism -  a type of behavior that may decrease the reproductive success of the  individual performing it but benefits the other individuals  4. assortative mating -  5. balanced polymorphism -  the prolonged maintenance of two or more alleles in  a population, normally because each allele is favored by a separate  environmental pressure 6. Coevolution -  the evolution of adaptations in two species due to their extensive  interactions with one another, such that each species acts as a major force of  natural selection on the other  7. Competition -  interaction among individuals who attempt to utilize a resource,  like food or space, that is limited relative to the demand for it 8. directional selection -  a type of natural selection in which one extreme  phenotype is favored all of the others  9. disruptive selection -  a type of natural selection in which both extreme  phenotypes are favored over all of the others  10. equilibrium population -  a population in which allele frequencies and the  distribution of genotypes do not change from generation to generation  11. Fitness -  the reproductive success of an organism, usually expressed in relation  to the average reproductive success of all individuals in the same population  12. founder effect -  a type of genetic drift in which an isolated population founded by  a small number of individuals may develop allele frequencies that are very  different from those of the parent population as a result of chance inclusion of  disproportionate numbers of certain alleles in the founders 13.
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