AnswersChapter 11A.Significance:1)P.T. Barnum:Main entrepreneur of the age, who had a traveling circus group. Heopened the American museum and entertained the antebellum society withventriloquists, magicians, albinos, and “mermaids”. Contributed to the growth ofpastimes in the antebellum period.2)Hudson River School:Illustrated transcendentalism through paintings, which focusedon “freshness” in American landscape and depiction of natural environment.3)Minstrel shows:Most popular pastime of the antebellum period, which demonstratedstereotypes of the African-Americans in the method of white men painting their faceblack and acting in front of the audience. Introduction of mockery of black people.4)Margaret Fuller:Transcendentalist who contributed in American literature. She wasone of the most influential women in the feminist movement. She argued for sexualequality and against gender roles.5)Phrenology:The belief that human mind contained thirty-seven facilities and that aperson’s character could be analyzed based on the size, bumps, and depressions of theskull. It was a popular accepted remedy in the antebellum era.B.Short Answer:1)The cotton gin made by Eli Whitney allowed more cotton to be produced in a shorteramount of time. Thus, it was the mandate of the “cotton kingdom” of the South.Additionally, it made possible for the cotton production to spread westward.2)From 18thcentury to 19thcentury, frame houses were replaced by the new row houses,which looked the same, but the size depended on your economic status. 3)Newspaper became a popular pastime in the society. Advances in the speed andproductivity of newspapers made it possible to make a profit off of newspaperswithout depending on political parties. Also more people bought it because thenewspaper was filled with exciting stories to entice American consumers rather thanboring mundane facts.4)The novels included characterization and plot, as well as the facts of everyday lifelike women and middle-class. Also, novels, such as by Margaret Fuller, talked aboutgender equality and about gender roles. That’s why many women embraced novels.5)James Fenimore Cooper introduced the first American fictional character, oftendepicting the American frontier, including the Native American culture.6)The Transcendentalists celebrated nature and disputed the notion that truth came fromreason. They argued that beauty was in nature and that God and honesty were insideof an individual. They were against the industrialization as they believed thattechnology was an enemy to one’s individualism.7)The Transportation Revolution and the Romantic Movement of Europe led to the“American Renaissance”. Transportation Revolution made it easier for markets toreceive the literary works and the Romantic Movement influence many of theAmerican writers to revive “American Renaissance”.