Palmer/Colton Chapter Five 1Chapter V. The Transformation of Eastern Europe,1648-1740 (pp. 210-249)Three old, increasingly ineffective, loose and sprawling political organizations are in decline--the HolyRoman Empire, the Republic of Poland, and the empire of the Ottoman Turks. Newer and strongerpowers are rising to replace them: Prussia, Austria, and Russia.Eastern Europe: more rural, less productive human labor, weaker middle classes. Peasants weregoverned by their landlords and were losing freedom. The Commercial Revolution strengthened great lordswho produced for export and secured their labor through “hereditary subjection,” including forced labor.23. Three Aging Empires:(211-221)Each of the three was different in origins and traditions but with basic resemblances: central authoritywas weak, with a nominal headand powerful local lords. All were outmoded; none had an efficientadministration. All were made up of diverse ethnic/language groups; none had been formed into a compactorganization. The whole area was malleable, at the mercy of strong neighbors.A. The Holy Roman Empire after 1648: The area had been ruined by the religious divisions produced bythe Protestant Reformation, with splinter groups demanding special safeguards. Large areas hadsuffered in the Thirty Years’ War, with vast losses in capital and savings, and a small, static burgherclass. Lacking large-scale organization they could not carry on overseas colonization or trade, andinternally their commerce was stifled by varying laws, tariffs, tolls and coinage. Culture was at a lowebb, in spite of Leibniz and J. S. Bach.B. Germany was composed of 300 sovereign states plus 200 sovereign “free knights”--a bizarre neo-feudalism. Each state was anxious to preserve its “German liberties,” and France and others werehappy to oblige and weaken the potential threat of a unified nation. Electors required each newemperor to agree to “capitulations,” promises to safeguard those liberties. In theory, the Diet couldraise an army and taxes, but in reality it was so evenly split between Protestants and Catholics that nodecision was possible; the Diet was characterized by wordiness and futility. Each minor state was apetty absolutism, with a court and an army--a vast array of mini-Sun Kings. Ambitious states used thepolitics of marriage to increase power and territory. Hohenzollernsaccumulated key territorieswhile Bavarians used the church to gain key cities; Saxons gained the thrones of England and Poland.C. Poland was called a Republic because its king was elected; nobles were proud of their liberties. It waslarge, with a heterogeneous population--Lithuania, the Duchy of Prussia, and Ukraine. Townspeoplewere largely Germans and Jews. Jews had tended to live apart from religious reasons but were graduallyforced to live in ghettos. Poland lacked a national middle classand language (except ChurchLatin). Aristocrats, 8% of the people, held sufficient power to prevent either absolutism orparliamentary government.