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Chapter 11 Outline

Chapter 11 Outline - Chapter 11 Outline Motivation and...

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Chapter 11 Outline: Motivation and Affect I. The Nature of Motivation A. How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior i. Motivation (something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior) directs behavior toward particular goals ii. Leads to increased effort and energy iii. Learners are more likely to begin a task they actually want to do iv. Affects what learners pay attention to v. Determines which consequences and reinforcing and punishing vi. Enhances performance B. Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Motivation i. Extrinsic Motivation: factors external to oneself and unrelated to the task one is performing ii. Intrinsic Motivation: factors within oneself and inherent in the task one is performing iii. Flow – losing concept of time and space when so involved in an intrinsic task iv. Intrinsic shows beneficial effects of motivation C. Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation i. Trait Theories ii. Behaviorist Theories iii. Social Cognitive Theories iv. Cognitive Theories II. Basic Human Needs A. Arousal i. people not only need arousal, but strive for a certain optimal level of arousal B.
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