Psych - Psych Evolution in Psychology 16th century Greek...

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Psych 03/12/2007 12:35:00 Evolution in Psychology 16 th  century Greek words psyche: soul, spirit, mind logos: study of a subject matter intellectual roots in physiology and philosophy Wilhem Wundt campaigned to make psych an independent discipline established first lab for the study of psych in 1879 defined as the scientific study of conscious experience trained psychs who spread throughout Europe and North America two intellectual schools of thought developed regarding the science of psych structuralism - Edward Titchener o focused on analyzing consciousness into basic elements o introspection - careful, systematic observations of one’s own  conscious experience functionalism - William James o influenced heavily by Darwin o focused on investigating the function or purpose of consciousness o led to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, and sex  differences o may have attracted the first women into the field of psych
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most historians give the edge to James and the functionalists structuralists credited with strengthening commitment of lab research today, psychs are not really categorized as structuralists or functionalists, yet  functionalism left a more enduring imprint practical orientation of … John B. Watson : United States founder of  behaviorism psychology = scientific study of behavior behavior = overt (observable) response or activity by an organism o radical reorientation of psych as a science of observable behavior o nurture not nature behaviorist school of thought emphasized the environment contributed to rise of animal research extremely influential but not unchallenged Sigmund Frued Austrian physician approached to psych grew out of efforts to treat mental disorders developed  psychoanalytic  theory emphasis on  unconscious  processes influencing behavior behavior is influenced by the unconscious unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behavior controversial notions met with significant resistance
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significant influence on the field of psych B.F. Skinner : USA environmental factors determine behavior responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated beyond freedom and dignity more controversy regarding free will by the 1950’s, both behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory were influential  schools of thought, yet many found these theories unappealing charges that both were dehumanizing diverse opposition groups got together to form a loose alliance
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