PSY205 EXAM2 LECTURE NOTES

PSY205 EXAM2 LECTURE NOTES - PSY205 EXAM #2 REVIEW LECTURE...

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PSY205 EXAM #2 REVIEW LECTURE NOTES I. LEARNING Learning: a change in behavior as a result of experience that endures, it is reversible, non-heritable and non- maturational - The reward pathway - The self-stimulation experiment - James Olds B.F. Skinner: experiment with a mouse - “Beyond Freedom and Dignity” - The environment selects species, traits, and behavior; freedom is an illusion - Positive and Negative Reinforcement - Any event that increases the rate of responding: A) for that event is a positive reinforcement B) for preventing the event from happening is negative reinforcement - Instrumental conditioning Operant conditioning - Shaping: reinforcing by successive steps - Skinner box: mouse presses the lever to get food - Pigeon’s behavior can be changed by changing the consequences Individual Differences - Behavior Modification - The case of Susie: controlled her coughing by rewarding her with money - The case of Lisa: fixes Lisa’s behavior (crawling on her hands and knees) by preventing the kids to acknowledge and laugh at her behavior and instead give her attention when she stands The use of reinforcement - Continuous vs. Partial reinforcement - Schedules of reinforcement: Fixed ratio: ex) every 10 watch, get $5 Variable ratio: not fixed Fixed interval: reinforcement at fixed interval; scalloping effect ex) studying last minute Variable interval: reinforcement at constantly changing interval
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The use of punishment - Experiment: Remove Reinforcement: may stop later Remove reinforcement, give shock: stop Leave reinforcement, give shock: won’t stop Leave reinforcement, give severe shock: stop, but shows negative behavior Learning by insight - Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959): positive and negative enforcement will change the behavior, but not affect learning - Mental map experiments latent learning: animals are able to make mental maps - Kohler’s classic experiment - The animals mind Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov: dog salivating in response to stimulus UCS: unconditioned stimulus (giving the meat) UCR: unconditioned response (salivating in response to the meat) CS: conditioned stimulus (ringing the bell) CR: conditioned response (salivating in response to the bell) - Generalization, extinction (stop salivating), discrimination (response to narrow band of stimuli), spontaneous recovery (some drops of saliva), experimental neurosis (form of mental illness in response to inability to make a decision or make a discrimination) - The immune response Fear Learning - John Watson (1878-1958) - Four innate fear reactions: Loud noise, loss of support/balance, painful stimulus, unusual pattern of stimulation - Little Albert II. MEMORY What are the secrets to improve your memory?
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The miracle of mind Models of memory - Plato- wax - Sherlock Holmes- attic (limited capacity of memory) - Library analogy- rooms, sections, shelves - Computer analogy- the technology of the age Memory Definition: a capacity to remember All models imply three types of brain functions in remembering:
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PSY205 EXAM2 LECTURE NOTES - PSY205 EXAM #2 REVIEW LECTURE...

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